Tuesday, November 26, 2019
Interview with a Vietnam War Veteran essays This interview was conducted though the internet on October 8 2002. Chuck Burns offered to share his Vietnam thoughts and experiences with us. In 1966 I dropped college and joined the Marines under threat of the draft. I wasnt sure what I was doing, but some of my buddies were going, so who was I to stay behind. Never thought of running - conservative family roots, my country, my family, my life. Run to what, run to where? I had no opinion. My country was fighting communism in a far off land. Better there than here. I knew nothing about a place called Nam. USA should have been involved with a different strategy, a better leadership, and greater support from the citizens. My training consisted of two months of orientation in a branch, (boot camp), two months of basic infantry training and 1 month of staging. I arrived at Da Nang, on a C-130 as a replacement grunt, and summarily I was assigned to a line outfit in Chu Lai. I found the country beautiful, rainy and green. In contrast the economy was inexistent at best. It was like shock treatment to what I knew. Muddy roads, trails, and villagers in pajamas. I remember when I was first taken to a battalion area. The truck passed through villages with women and kids standing on mud and waving a couple of feet away from us. My most vivid memories are those of combat and the images of combat from both sides. Most notably my brothers in arms. The chaos of the moment. Other than that, the personalities involved were varied and memorable. From the black brother from Chicago, to the hillbilly from Georgia. We all came together and knew each other. Very well. There were sailors, marines, soldiers and air men. Not to mention chopper pilots and jet pilots, medics and corpsmen. I was a Marine. Life was unbearable at first. A camping trip with no tent or warm coco. Enjoyment, was eating out of cans, sleeping and reading mail from home. No head, no clean water, no trails, an ...
Friday, November 22, 2019
Stone Tools Then and Now We all know the cartoon of the cave man bearing his stone axe. How crude life must have been, we may think, when there was no metal. But stone is a worthy servant. In fact, stone tools have been found that are more than 2 million years old. This means that stone technology is not something Homo sapiens invented- we inherited it from earlier hominid species. And stone tools are still around. I dont mean stone used for construction, but things you can hold in your hand and do stuff with. Stone Grinding Tools Start with grinding. One stone tool thats still in common kitchen use is the mortar and pestle, better than anything for turning things to a powder or paste. (Those are made of marble or agate.) And maybe you seek out stoneground flour for your baking needs. (Grindstones are made of quartzite and similar rocks.) Perhaps the highest use of stone today along these lines is in the tough, heavy granite rollers used for grinding and conching chocolate. And lets not forget chalk, the soft stone used for writing on blackboards or sidewalks. Edged Stone Tools But what makes me light up is edged stone tools. If you spend enough time in suitable country, one day youll pick up an ancient arrowhead. The utter coolness of the technology really comes home when you look at one of these stone tools close up, like some of the delicate points at arrowheads.com. The technique of making them is called knapping (with a silent K), and it involves striking stones with harder stones, or highly controlled pressure flaking with pieces of antler and similar materials. It takes years of practice, and you cut your hands a lot until you become an expert. The type of stone used is typically chert. Chert is a form of quartz with an exceedingly fine grain. Different types are called flint, agate, and chalcedony. A similar rock, obsidian, forms from high-silica lava and is the best knapping stone of all. These stone tools- points, blades, scrapers, axes and more- are often the only evidence we have from archaeological sites. They are cultural fossils, and like true fossils, they have been collected and classified for many years around the world. Modern geochemical techniques like neutron activation analysis, coupled with growing databasesÃ of the sources of toolmaking stone, are allowing us to trace the movements of prehistoric peoples and the patterns of trade among them. Stone Tools Today Another thing that makes me light up is knowing that this technology is being revived and preserved by a bunch of fanatic knappers. Theyll show you how at a local knap-in, theyll sell you videotapes and books, and of course theyll put their passion on the web. The best knapping websites, I think, are Knappers Anonymous and flintknapping.com, but if you want to follow the arrowhead trail to the scientific end of things, start with the lithics page from Kris Hirst, the About Archaeology Guide. The knapper/artist Errett Callahan has devoted his career to reproducing all the ancient tools, then moving beyond them. He and other practitioners have brought this technology into what he calls the Post-Neolithic period. His fantasy knives will make your jaws drop. PS: Obsidian scalpels are the sharpest in the world, and plastic surgeons rely on them more and more for operations where scarring must be minimized. Truly, the stone edge is here to stay.
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Which Housing Should I Get - Assignment Example The report gives an overview of the labor market and local housing conditions in Salt Lake County, which is my area of residence near my family home. Also, the housing analysis report includes the calculations of how much money I will earn after graduation, as well as the affordable homes for rent. There is a consideration of the mortgage interest rates in case I will buy a house. In addition, the paper discusses the pros and cons of the interested properties and their location, as well as, the assumptions made before coming to the final housing choice. The current status of the job market is still poor, having in mind that the American economy is recovering from the global financial crisis of 2008. The rate of youth unemployment remains high although it is unpredictable in the future. However, the labor and housing markets have recently started recovering and thus there is hope for employment of the youths (Utah Economic Council, 2014). Based on the current status of the jobs market, one can only get a short term employment contract earning you a living wage. It is sensible for a fresh graduate getting such a salary to rent a house after graduation, although some may borrow loans in the form of mortgages to buy houses, with the aid of their parents. The level of income usually affects the type of a house one lives and the standards of living, as well. The housing conditions are reportedly to have improved due to the on-going recovery of the economy from the Great Recession. However, there is a likelihood of the increase in housing prices in the coming few years and, for this reason, many people are opting for buying their homes (Utah Economic Council, 2014). Currently, in Utah, the mortgage default rates are high, and many people are going bankrupt. It is a hard decision to make for whoever is willing to get housing facilities from this county. From the facts of the housing markets, it is evident that housing is costly and also a unique consumer product
Tuesday, November 19, 2019
Analysis of Operation Situation and Competition of UK Insurance Industry - Essay Example These companies are Aviva Plc., Prudential Plc. and Royal and Sun Alliance Insurance Group. The first part of the paper includes PEST and Porter Five Forces analysis, while keeping in view the industry trends and environment. In addition to this, analysis of financial performance of the selected three insurance companies in UK has also been performed. This activity has been carried out with the help of ratio analysis; comparison of key financial indicators against closes competitors and industry standards. The next part of the paper consists of strategic analysis of the selected insurance businesses by utilizing Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threat (SWOT) model. The SWOT model is considered to be helpful in determining what are the external factors and future prospects that might have an influence on the direction of the business. Additionally, the model also identifies the role of internal factors of a business that might result in effecting the performance of the busines s on strategic and financial grounds. After presenting these analyses, a discussion based on the findings from analysis has been presented, which provides the ratings for selected companies on the basis of their financial performance and SWOT analysis. The insurance industry has been chosen for this project looking at the importance of this industry in terms of its contribution to the economy of UK. The insurance industry has played a vital a vital role in covering the customers from the risks of investment, health and education, etc. This industry have been satisfied the customers in terms of their requirements of general insurance as well as life insurance. Due to the demand of these products in the market, the industry has registered a strong trend of sales and revenue earnings. According to Global Business Browser (2012), the value of UK insurance market increased by 2.6% to $319.7 billion in 2011, which makes
Sunday, November 17, 2019
Herman Millar Inc. Essay The office furniture manufacturing industry market in the United States is very competitive since many companies offering similar products. Companies compete primarily on price, product and service quality, differentiation, design, speed of delivery and customer service. Firms compete within each market segment and are pressured by growing competition from overseas manufacturers particularly from China and Vietnam. Six manufacturers-Steelcase, Herman Miller, Haworth, HNI, Kimball International and Knoll-account for approximately 60% of the U. S. office furniture market. The remainder of the market is captured by a large number of small and privately owned businesses that successfully supply the local communitys retail demand. The large number of existing companies definitely shaped the landscape of the Chinese market competition. Furniture manufacturing industry concentration has increased in last couple of years because many operators have gone out of business. Following the downturn of US economy, high unemployment rates, have created an intensely competitive environment for existing players; faced with low margins and volatile input costs, many underperforming operators were forced to exit the market. However, as the economy will recover, demand for new office furniture is expected to increase, expanding the number of companies over the five years to 2016. In conclusion, the intensity of rivalry is moderately high. Although current concentration of the industry is a low, the trend of the industry is to become more competitive in future. This would decrease the potential future profit of department store industry. Threat of new entrants The barrier to entry in this industry are medium and are steady. In the US office furniture industry, the capital required to enter the industry is considerably higher. New operators entering the industry face various challenges, including existing and well established distribution networks among operators and suppliers. To remain price competitive, the new operators need to establish strong supply relationships with manufacturers and wholesalers in order to secure good quality and low-priced stock. Since the concentration is expected to rise, it places an indirect pressure on new entrants that need to invest more in advertising to develop brand and market awareness. Marketing and promotional activity must exceed that of the existing players to build customer awareness and overcome retailer resistance. Furthermore, the productivity difference between the small-sized companies and the large-sized companies is very large. The combination of all this evidence indicates that the entrant barrier into the US office furniture industry is relatively high. Bargaining power of Supplier The intense internal competition force for resources among the large number of manufacturers pushed the bargaining power of suppliers to the most significant influence on domestic furniture industry. This refers primarily to suppliers of most important goods i. e. raw material and electric power, which are used in intermediary consumption during furniture manufacture. Purchases of raw materials are the largest expense for the Office Furniture Manufacturing industry, accounting for about 43. 7% of industry revenue. This proportion is typical for manufacturing industries, since operators require significant raw materials to produce final outputs. Input materials used for office furniture include hardwood, such as oak, cherry and maple wood; plywood and veneers; steel; glass; plastic; and glue. During the five years to 2011, the prices of these inputs have been volatile, making it difficult for manufacturers to anticipate future spending and reduce costs. In general, rising commodity prices have negatively affected the industry, increasing purchase costs for manufacturers. Bargaining power of buyers According to the research of IBIS World, department store sales depend heavily on the financial health of the consumer sector, including per capita disposable income. During periods of economic recession and decreasing income of people, consumers cut their spending by delaying purchases or substituting brandsÃ¢â¬â¢ products with lower level products. This is heavily influenced by the unemployment rate and general economic growth. In the periods of strong economic activity peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s disposable income increase, and vice versa. Threat of substitutes Furniture has been used for thousands of years and built mostly of wood. There is little evidence indicating that wood furniture will be totally replaced by some other material in the foreseeable future. In the industry of furniture manufacture probability of substitutes is almost impossible. Current global trends have a favorable influence on increase in demand for furniture, due to ever faster obsolescence and shorter furniture lifetime, i. . due to frequent changes in design and manufacture technology. Possible threat of trend changes exists, i. e. furniture made from other materials than wood, that is, various metals, plastics and glass. However, despite the reduction of wood in furniture manufacture in the past years, wood is expected to stay one of the most important raw materials for furniture manufacture, because of its advantages when compared with oth er materials. Question: What are the driving forces and the key success factors in the industry? Answer: Having contacts within key markets: It is preferable that manufacturers have established links with a number of customers, including wholesalers, contractors and retail outlets, rather than having one or two that account for the majority of their business. Guaranteed supply of key inputs: Established links with key suppliers enable a steady flow of key inputs and price locks, which may provide cost savings for bulk purchases. Flexible production processes: Furniture items are often custom-made. Producers must be able to adjust products to suit individual requirements. Adapting to changing customer preferences: Goods produced should reflect current trends favored by consumers in order to remain competitive. Highly trained workforce: Staff is required to assemble office furniture efficiently and provide quality workmanship. Question: How have the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s values shaped its strategy and approach to strategy execution? Provide illustrations of how these values are reflected in company policies. Answer: Question: What is MillerÃ¢â¬â¢s strategy? Which of the five generic competitive strategies most closely fit the competitive approach that Miller is taking? What type of competitive advantage is Miller trying to achieve? Answer: They focus on a growth strategy, through innovative products and production processes. Reinvention and renewal. They survived the Great Depression and multiple recessions, recovered from the dot-com bust and were able to continue expanding overseas. They adapted to save the company, by introducing new designs. In 1996, Herman Miller began an aggressive drive to reinvent its operations and established a fruitful relationship with the Toyota Supplier Support Center. Unique to the office furniture industry, the relationship enabled the company to adopt and implement world-class, lean manufacturing processes based on the Toyota Production System principles. Through the Herman Miller Production System (HMPS), the company dramatically reduced manufacturing square footage and inventories, cut lead times for standard product from 8 weeks Question: What is your overall appraisal of MillerÃ¢â¬â¢s financial performance? Answer:
Thursday, November 14, 2019
Voltaire and the Enlightenment During the eighteenth century a group of French writers and critics known as the Philosophes favored change and reform. They believed in the power of the human mind, which was an idea that was inspired by the Scientific Revolution. The philosophes had faith in the power of rational criticism to challenge the tradition of the past. They also sought to apply the rules of reason and common sense to nearly all major institutions and social practices. The philosophes proposed a new kind of organized religion, a social religion which encouraged harmony and tolerance while strengthening the bonds of moral obligations within society. One of the major French philosophes during the eighteenth century was Voltaire. He was greatly inspired by the work of Isaac Newton during the Scientific Revolution, who believed there was a close relationship between his scientific theory and religion. Like Newton, Voltaire also theorized about the existence of God. One critic named Victor Hugo wrote, "'To name Voltaire is to characterize the entire Eighteenth Century. Italy had a Renaissance and Germany had Reformation, but France had Voltaire.'"1 Voltaire strongly believed that humans used their reason to make decisions and he also proposed a social religion and speculated about the existence of God which caused people to question their faith and reason. Voltaire, like many other Philosophes, believed in man provided that he was educated and used his reason. However, many people in Voltaire's time were illiterate, superstitious, unreasonable, and relied upon the guidance of the ruler. Voltaire believed in enlightened despotism, which was when the people obeyed the laws and made sure they were fairly enforced by all cla... ... the church and caused many people to question their faith and reason. Voltaire was one of the many philosophes who challenged people's faith and who was a part of the advancements in reason during the Enlightenment. - Frederick Artz, The Enlightenment in France (Oberlin: The Kent State University - Press, 1968), p. 66. - See Frederick Artz, p. 76. - See Frederick Artz, p. 79. - See Frederick Artz, p. 80. - Ronald Boss, "The Development of Social Religion: A Contradiction of French - Free Thought," Journal of the History of Ideas v. 34, no.4 (1973): p. 582. - See Ronald Boss, p. 583. - See Ronald Boss, p. 584. - See Ronald Boss, p. 585. - Rosemary Lauer, The Mind of Voltaire: A Study of his "Constructive Deism" (Westminster: Newman Press, 1961), p.90. - See Rosemary Lauer, p. 91. - See Rosemary Lauer, p. 92. - See Rosemary Lauer, p. 93.
Tuesday, November 12, 2019
1. Explain how exchange rate targeting by the central bank can affect the balance of payment position of a country (Hint: Consider the current and the capital accounts) Exchange rate targeting is whereby the exchange rate becomes the nominal anchor. The subject of the most favorable monetary regime for small open developing economies is still widely discussed. The advantages and disadvantages of different exchange rate regimes are far too many to be readily captured and used to come up with a specific regime that suits the needs of all. Real exchange rate is perhaps the most popular real target for developing economies.The main advantages of Exchange rate targeting are a)The nominal anchor of an exchange-rate target directly contributes to keeping inflation under control by tying the inflation rate for internationally traded goods to that found in the anchor country. b)The exchange rate can be directly observed i. e, with a fairly narrow band on a certain exchange rate, it is easy to determine whether the intermediate target is fulfilled c)An exchange-rate target provides an automatic rule for the conduct of monetary policy that helps mitigate the time-inconsistency problem. )An exchange-rate target has the advantage of simplicity and clarity, as it is easily understood by the public. The main advantages of Exchange rate targeting are a)Shocks that change interest rates in the anchor country lead to corresponding changes in interest rates in the target country. b)The targeting country is open to speculative attack on its currency whenever the anchor country pursues tight monetary policy. The close linkage of the exchange rate to the general price levels of the economies produce an economy wide importance of policy making since it affects the real income and wealth of those economies.One of the main objectives of the exchange rate based stabilizations is to improve the Balance of Payment (BOP) performance through international competitiveness. Devaluation or dep reciation of a countryÃ¢â¬â¢s currency is aimed at gaining external competitiveness and BOP improvement in an economy. Exchange rate targeting is likely to impact on a nationÃ¢â¬â¢s BOP through various means which can be assessed through looking at the various approaches to BOP. In order for xchange rate targeting to be successful, it is vital that international financial support be availed in the form of an injection of foreign currency to increase the supply and perhaps match the demand for forex in the country. At the same time, the central bank should be building its foreign reserves. When the central bank has adequate reserves, then it can enter the forex market to influence the value of the dollar by buying or selling forex to affect liquidity conditions in the market. As investors gain confidence in the economy, foreign investment starts flowing into the country, increasing supply of forex.Also, as production increases due to a favourable market related exchange rate, exp orts will increase and so will be the inflow of forex. The main reason why the exchange rate continues to overshoot its real value is because, the central bank lacks the capacity to influence its value due to lack of adequate foreign reserves. Consider the elasticity approach to BOP. The elasticity approach emphasizes price changes as a determinant of a nation's balance of payments. The elasticity approach, therefore, considers the responsiveness of imports and exports to a change in the value of a nationÃ¢â¬â¢s currency.For example, if import demand is highly elastic, a depreciation of the domestic currency will cause a disproportional decline in the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s imports. The Marshall-Lerner condition, states that a currency devaluation will only lead to an improvement in the balance of payments if the sum of demand elasticity for imports and exports is greater than one An upwards shift in the value of a nation's currency relative to others will make a nation's exports less co mpetitive and make imports cheaper and so will tend to correct a current account surplus.The main advantage of manipulating exchange rates is that, if output is traded internationally, changes in exchange rates will have a powerful effect on Aggregate demand. According to Marshal Lerner condition, devaluation currency leads to improvement in the balance of payments if the sum of import and export elasticityÃ¢â¬â¢s is greater than one. A weak exchange rate leads to reduction in price of exports and increase the price of the imports. As such, quantity demanded will increase and quantity of imports demanded will decrease. This will increase the current account balance and hence a country remains competitive.
Saturday, November 9, 2019
Congestive heart failure, also called CHF or heart failure, is a serious and complex disease in which the heart muscle has been damaged or has to work too hard because of heart disease and other conditions, such as obesity. Although the heart continues to beat, the damaged heart muscle is too weak to efficiently pump enough oxygen-rich blood to and from the body, resulting in potentially life-threatening congestion in the lungs and other tissues of the body. Congestive heart failure is a common complication of heart attack and other types of heart disease that damage the heart muscle. These diseases include hypertension, heart valve disorders, arrhythmias, and cardiomyopathy. Congestive heart failure can also be caused by anemia. In general, congestive heart failure affects both the left and right sides of the heart, but it can affect one side more than the other, depending on the location and severity of damage. In left-sided congestive heart failure, the left side of the heart is damaged and unable to effectively pump blood from the heart to the body. This results in blood backing up into the lungs and increasing blood pressure in the lungs. The increase in pressure causes a buildup of fluid in the lungs, which can lead to a life-threatening condition called acute pulmonary edema. In right-sided congestive heart failure, the right side of the heart is damaged and unable to effectively pump blood flowing from the body back to the heart. This results in a backup of blood and an increase in pressure in the veins that carry blood from the body to the heart. In turn, this leads to swelling (edema) of the lower extremities and sometimes of other areas of the body. Acute congestive heart failure, in which fluid builds up rapidly in the lungs and causes pulmonary edema, is an immediately life-threatening condition that can quickly lead to respiratory failure, cardiac arrest and death. Immediate emergency treatment best minimizes the risk of these and other seriousÃ¢â¬ ¦
Thursday, November 7, 2019
Brazil Sao Paulo essays Projections indicate a total population of 169 million in 2000. According to the 1996 count, the most populous region in the country is still the Southeast (63 million inhabitants), followed by the Northeast (45 million), the South (23.1 million), the North (11.1 million), and the Center-West (10.2 million). The most inhabited states are So Paulo, Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro, Bahia, Rio Grande do Sul, and Paran. These states all lie along the Atlantic coast.Sao Paulo state (1996 pop. 34,055,715), 95,713 sq mi (247,897 sq km), SE Brazil. It is Brazils most populous and economically important state. The capital is the city of So Paulo, (1996 pop. 9,816,776) So Paulo, which dominates the vast hinterland of one of Brazils wealthiest agricultural states, is Brazils commercial, financial, and industrial center. Through its Atlantic Ocean port of Santos The 1996 count showed that there were ninety-seven men for every 100 women and that the total number of women exceeded the number of men by 5 million. In the 1990-92 period, the economy deteriorated further, with a 1.3 percent annual decline in GDP and 4.1 percent decline in industrial output. Agriculture grew only 1.5 percent, and the services sector, only 0.4 percent annually. The overall unemployment rate increased from 3.4 percent in 1989 to 4.3 percent in 1990, 4.2 percent in 1991, and 5.8 percent in 1992. The labor absorption by the informal sector continued to be large and highly visible. As for the disparity in the wage scale, according to the 1990 household survey, in September of that year 10.8 percent of the employed work force, or 6.5 million persons, earned one-half of a minimum wage, a monthly average of US$299; 49.2 percent of the employed work force, or 29.8 million persons, received two minimum wages or less. At the other extreme, 7.8 percent of the employed work force received more than ten minimum wages, a monthly average of US$1,941; 3...
Tuesday, November 5, 2019
Examine the Causes of World War II Many of the seeds of World War II in Europe were sown by the Treaty of Versailles that ended World War I. In its final form, the treaty placed full blame for the war on Germany and Austria-Hungary, as well as exacted harsh financial reparations and led to territorial dismemberment. For the German people, who had believed that the armistice had been agreed to based on US President Woodrow Wilsons lenient Fourteen Points, the treaty caused resentment and a deep mistrust of their new government, the Weimar Republic. The need to pay war reparations, coupled with the instability of the government, contributed to massive hyperinflation which crippled the German economy. This situation was made worse by the onset of the Great Depression. In addition to the economic ramifications of the treaty, Germany was required to demilitarize the Rhineland and had severe limitations placed on the size of its military, including the abolishment of its air force. Territorially, Germany was stripped of its colonies and forfeited land for the formation of the country of Poland. To ensure that Germany would not expand, the treaty forbade the annexation of Austria, Poland, and Czechoslovakia. Rise of Fascism and the Nazi Party In 1922, Benito Mussolini and the Fascist Party rose to power in Italy. Believing in a strong central government and strict control of industry and the people, Fascism was a reaction to the perceived failure of free market economics and a deep fear of communism. Highly militaristic, Fascism also was driven by a sense of belligerent nationalism that encouraged conflict as a means of social improvement. By 1935, Mussolini was able to make himself the dictator of Italy and transformed the country into a police state. To the north in Germany, Fascism was embraced by the National Socialist German Workers Party, also known as the Nazis. Swiftly rising to power in the late 1920s, the Nazis and their charismatic leader, Adolf Hitler, followed the central tenets of Fascism while also advocating for the racial purity of the German people and additional German Lebensraum (living space). Playing on the economic distress in Weimar Germany and backed by their Brown Shirts militia, the Nazis became a political force. On January 30, 1933, Hitler was placed in a position to take power when he was appointed Reich Chancellor by President Paul von Hindenburg The Nazis Assume Power A month after Hitler assumed the Chancellorship, the Reichstag building burned. Blaming the fire on the Communist Party of Germany, Hitler used the incident as an excuse to ban those political parties that opposed Nazi policies. On March 23, 1933, the Nazis essentially took control of the government by passing the Enabling Acts. Meant to be an emergency measure, the acts gave the cabinet (and Hitler) the power to pass legislation without the approval of the Reichstag. Hitler next moved to consolidate his power and executed a purge of the party (The Night of the Long Knives) to eliminate those who could threaten his position. With his internal foes in check, Hitler began the persecution of those who were deemed racial enemies of the state. In September 1935, he passed the Nuremburg Laws which stripped Jews of their citizenship and forbade marriage or sexual relations between a Jew and an Aryan. Three years later the first pogrom began (Night of Broken Glass) in which over one hundred Jews were killed and 30,000 arrested and sent to concentration camps. Germany Remilitarizes On March 16, 1935, in clear violation of the Treaty of Versailles, Hitler ordered the remilitarization of Germany, including the reactivation of the Luftwaffe (air force). As the German army grew through conscription, the other European powers voiced minimal protest as they were more concerned with enforcing the economic aspects of the treaty. In a move that tacitly endorsed Hitlers violation of the treaty, Great Britain signed the Anglo-German Naval Agreement in 1935, which allowed Germany to build a fleet one third the size of the Royal Navy and ended British naval operations in the Baltic. Two years after beginning the expansion of the military, Hitler further violated the treaty by ordering the reoccupation of the Rhineland by the German Army. Proceeding cautiously, Hitler issued orders that the German troops should withdrawal if the French intervened. Not wanting to become involved in another major war, Britain and France avoided intervening and sought a resolution, with little success, through the League of Nations. After the war several German officers indicated that if the reoccupation of the Rhineland had been opposed, it would have meant the end of Hitlers regime. The Anschluss Emboldened by Great Britain and Frances reaction to the Rhineland, Hitler began to move forward with a plan to unite all German-speaking peoples under one Greater German regime. Again operating in violation of the Treaty of Versailles, Hitler made overtures regarding the annexation of Austria. While these were generally rebuffed by the government in Vienna, Hitler was able to orchestrate a coup by the Austrian Nazi Party on March 11, 1938, one day before a planned plebiscite on the issue. The next day, German troops crossed the border to enforce the Anschluss (annexation). A month later the Nazis held a plebiscite on the issue and received 99.73% of the vote. International reaction was again mild, with Great Britain and France issuing protests, but still showing that they were unwilling to take military action. The Munich Conference With Austria in his grasp, Hitler turned towards the ethnically German Sudetenland region of Czechoslovakia. Since its formation at the end of World War I, Czechoslovakia had been wary of possible German advances. To counter this, they had built an elaborate system of fortifications throughout the mountains of the Sudetenland to block any incursion and formed military alliances with France and the Soviet Union. In 1938, Hitler began supporting paramilitary activity and extremist violence in the Sudetenland. Following Czechoslovakias declaration of martial law in the region, Germany immediately demanded that the land be turned over to them. In response, Great Britain and France mobilized their armies for the first time since World War I. As Europe moved towards war, Mussolini suggested a conference to discuss the future of Czechoslovakia. This was agreed to and the meeting opened in September 1938, at Munich. In the negotiations, Great Britain and France, led by Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain and President Ãâ°douard Daladier respectively, followed a policy of appeasement and caved to Hitlers demands in order to avoid war. Signed on September 30, 1938, the Munich Agreement turned over the Sudetenland to Germany in exchange for Germanys promise to make no additional territorial demands. The Czechs, who had not been invited to conference, were forced to accept the agreement and were warned that if they failed to comply, they would be responsible for any war that resulted. By signing the agreement, the French defaulted on their treaty obligations to Czechoslovakia. Returning to England, Chamberlain claimed to have achieved peace for our time. The following March, German troops broke the agreement and seized the remainder of Czechoslovakia. Shortly thereafter, Germany entered into a military alliance with Mussolinis Italy. The Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact Angered by what he saw as the Western Powers colluding to give Czechoslovakia to Hitler, Josef Stalin worried that a similar thing could occur with the Soviet Union. Though wary, Stalin entered into talks with Britain and France regarding a potential alliance. In the summer of 1939, with the talks stalling, the Soviets began discussions with Nazi Germany regarding the creation of aÃ non-aggression pact. The final document, the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, was signed on August 23, and called for the sale of food and oil to Germany and mutual non-aggression. Also included in the pact were secret clauses dividing Eastern Europe into spheres of influence as well as plans for the partition of Poland. The Invasion of Poland SinceÃ World War I, tensions had existed between Germany and Poland regarding the free city of Danzig and the Polish Corridor. The latter was a narrow strip of land reaching north to Danzig which provided Poland with access to the sea and separated the province of East Prussia from the rest of Germany. In an effort to resolve these issues and gainÃ LebensraumÃ for the German people, Hitler began planning the invasion of Poland. Formed after World War I, Polands army was relatively weak and ill-equipped compared to Germany. To aid in its defense, Poland had formed military alliances with Great Britain and France. Massing their armies along the Polish border, the Germans staged a fake Polish attack on August 31, 1939. Using this as a pretext for war, German forces flooded across the border the next day. On September 3, Great Britain and France issued an ultimatum to Germany to end the fighting. When no reply was received, both nations declared war. In Poland, German troops executed a blitzkrieg (lightning war) assault combining armor and mechanized infantry. This was supported from above by the Luftwaffe, which had gained experience fighting with the fascist Nationalists during the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939). The Poles attempted to counterattack but were defeated at the Battle of Bzura (Sept. 9-19). As the fighting was ending at Bzura, the Soviets, acting on the terms of the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, invaded from the east. Under assault from two directions, the Polish defenses crumbled with only isolated cities and areas offering prolonged resistance. By October 1, the country had been completely overrun with some Polish units escaping to Hungary and Romania. During the campaign, Great Britain and France, who were both slow to mobilize, provided little support to their ally. With the conquest of Poland, the Germans implemented Operation Tannenberg which called for the arrest, detainment, and execution of 61,000 Polish activists, former officers, actors, and intelligentsia. By the end of September, special units known asÃ EinsatzgruppenÃ had killed over 20,000 Poles. In the east, the Soviets also committed numerous atrocities, including the murder of prisoners of war, as they advanced. The following year, the Soviets executed between 15,000-22,000 Polish POWs and citizens in theÃ Katyn ForestÃ on Stalins orders.
Sunday, November 3, 2019
What are environmental benefits of joining European Union - Essay Example Firstly, scholars have noted that the environmental standards that the European Union promotes can potentially save between 50,000 and 150,000 lives in countries that adopt EU standards; due to reduced levels of air pollution alone (Daly, 2012). With such a drastic reduction in death associated with air pollution, the society itself is not only better off and more healthy, they are able to defray a great many expenses that are associated with the long term healthcare of those individuals that suffer from this pollution. Estimates from scholars put the total cost savings that are associated with the above issue at tens of billions of pounds annually. Such a change can clearly be denoted with respect to the vastly positive shift in air purity that was represented within RomaniaÃ¢â¬â¢s air pollution index after European Union inclusion. Additionally, people in rural areas can be connected to municipal waste management systems; thereby reducing the pollution that takes place within the countryside as a result of illegal dumping. The power that this particular requirement has is oftentimes misunderstood or under-stated. However, by standardizing and centralizing the waste management of these nations, the entire ecosystem is preserved from the harm that many smaller and less stringent dumping sites would necessarily reflect (Kingston, 2010). The European Union also promotes a series of new requirements on nature protection; these will help to preserve the natural habitat of many creatures and a great many forest and swamp lands for future generations to enjoy (Bertram & Rehdanz, n.d.). Although such a consideration is oftentimes not the first concern of those individuals that wish to promote a further level of economic growth and independence, it is necessary for the preservation of the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s resources to consider the long term impacts that further destruction of