Thursday, October 31, 2019

Journals Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Journals - Essay Example Therefore, Sufi orders otherwise known as turuql could either be Sunni Shii, or a combination of both doctrines. However, it is interesting to know that most of the turuql originate from Islamic Prophet  Muhammad. Very interesting though, is the fact that sufis strongly believe in the ideologies of peace, pacifism, and tolerance. Nevertheless, although sufi devotion is appreciated by many tenets of muslims, Wahhabi  and Salafist  Muslims have a strong opposition to sufi devotion. Learning and understanding sufi devotion has indeed enlightened me on this unique way of Islamic worship. I certainly support this kind of devotion since it encourages the followers to purify their hearts as they do so. However, I find it very interesting that sufi devotion is somewhat similar to Christian worship especially when Christian go for fasting and prayer. However, what I fail to perceive is the reason why Wahhabi  and Salafist  Muslims have a strong opposition to sufi devotion considerin g the way sufi devotion seems good and interesting. I also think that sufi devotion was the ultimate God’s idea of having an intimate relationship with his people. Looking at Buddhism, Buddha’s appreciate the need for meditation as a way of connecting with divine power. Therefore, sufi devotion is a form of worship done in different ways in different religions but having different names. Modernity Undeniably, the term modernity has different dimensions of definition depending on what is being studied. However, modernity simply means the paradigm shift from feudalism to secularized world. Modernity is often seen through different lens such as capitalism, industrialization, technological advancement, religious ideologies among others. Modernity can also refer to as the element of enlightenment. Modernity within the Islamic context arguably began in Turkey where tremendous change of religious, cultural, scientific, as well as legal ideologies surfaced. Interestingly, the adoption of modernity was not a uniform phenomenon. Indeed, there existed different groups of people that did not embrace modernity. This explains why we still have conservatism in all religions. For instance, Islam is arguably divided into different significant groups. However, conservatism is still appreciated in many Islamic tenets. Nevertheless, those who appreciate modernism have very often maintained that the spirit of reason in the original message of Islam be incorporated in modern lifestyle. Although I am not old enough to have seen the change from the traditional aspect to modernity, I can still perceive the idea through the reading. I strongly feel that modernity has changed many aspects of life including religious thoughts and ideologies. However, I think God, in his mighty power, had foreseen the modern lifestyle and had therefore made religion compatible with modernity. Therefore, as we seek to embrace modernity in all other aspects, I believe that modernity should als o be embraced within the religious context. However, the arguments presented by those who do not support modernity in religion are also important in making sure that modernists do not go beyond what is expected of them. Reading about modernity and conservatism in the same reading is indeed a worthwhile endeavor. Muhammad Muhammad is believed to be the spiritual leader of the Islamic religion. Muhammad born in approximately 570 CE was a religious leader but more notably, he was also a religious and political leader as well.

Tuesday, October 29, 2019

Advanced management accounting Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Advanced management accounting - Essay Example They cannot control costs well without preparations the statements that reconcile expected revenue and expenditure with budgeted figures. In this regard, the paper aims at preparing a statement giving the budgeted, actual, and variances. The information above reveals that L10 has a favorable variance because the actual expenditure is less than the budgeted amount whereas L17 has an adverse variance sine the actual number exceeded the budgeted expenditure. The quantity put into books may not be the same as the one sold. It is due to favorable or unfavorable operating conditions. In obtaining the variance, the actual amount sold is subtracted from the standard number. The result is multiplied with the standard selling price. The information of Geeta plc allowed the calculation below in determining the sales volume variance. Labour cost variance has been given a definition by Drury (2008) as the difference between the actual labour cost incurred and the budgeted cost. It is made up of labour rate variance and labour efficiency variance. The employees in an organization may take more hours in completing tasks than what the budget allowed. Conversely, the conditions may allow the workers to spend less time in completing the activities assigned to them. Either way, the variance arises. It is calculated by finding the difference between the time allocated in the budget and the real time taken at standard wage rate (Lucey, 2002). In every organization, decision making process requires certain information. The crucial information involves cost analysis. The costs have different behavior, and it becomes necessary for management accountants to prepare cost reports allowing efficient management of costs. The statements categorize costs. In doing so, the managers are able to identify relevant and irrelevant costs. Lucey (2002) defines relevant cost as the one that can

Sunday, October 27, 2019

Importance Of Ecumenical Developments And Interfaith Dialogue Religion Essay

Importance Of Ecumenical Developments And Interfaith Dialogue Religion Essay The importance of ecumenical developments and interfaith dialogue in Australia is of significant meaning. Ecumenical development and interfaith dialogue impact religious multi-faith dialogue in Australia greatly. These dialogues have allowed other religions to communicate peacefully with one another and variants within Christianity to work together. The development of ecumenism in Australia is present through organizations such as the National Council of Churches Australia. In Australia the National Council of Churches is an ecumenical organization that brings together a number of Australias Christian Churches in dialogue and practical cooperation. The NCCA reflects ecumenical development as it promotes the importance of community coming together. This organisation joins with all Australians to convey their concern for the Australian communities. A very recent case of the NCCA showing their concern is for the people affected by the floods in Queensland. This organisation clearly demonstrates the importance of ecumenical development as it shows the unity of all Christian groups working towards peace. Another example promoting ecumenical development is the NSW Ecumenical Council. The council is made up of sixteen Christian churches through New South Whales and the Australian Capital Territory and follows three major beliefs. The NSW Ecumenical Council was established to be the instrument through which the churches seek to be faithful to their ecumenical calling and commitment. The council allows ecumenism to develop as it keeps the faith of Christ alive by following its major principles. The Ecumenical Council is a large part of the development as it encourages society to work together. The council helps organize and support a large range of gatherings and activities during the year to promote Christian unity and to help Christianity grow together as one. The Uniting Church is another example of ecumenical development as three churches came together and became one. It is a multicultural church, determined to treat people on an equal basis and to give a voice to the poor and the needy. The role of the church is to stand with the people, and to care for spiritual, social and educational growth. The Uniting Church is an example of ecumenical development as it helps all members of the multicultural community develop and help all with their problems. This is important as it helps the Christian community grow and teach people to treat others equally. All these organizations function to achieve the same outcome; to achieve the unity of Christianity. The councils and the church all work to serve the community. Without organizations practicing ecumenical development, Christianity will not be able to work together as one whole religious tradition. As well as ecumenical development in Australia, interfaith dialogue in Australia is of great importance. Interfaith dialogue is the interaction between different religions. Religious traditions all over Australia have come together and built relationships through interfaith dialogue organizations. This dialogue has brought together religions and helped one another communicate. Interfaith dialogue organisations seek unity and to promote harmonious living ways with all people regardless of their religion. The Australian National Dialogue of Christians, Muslims, and Jews are an interfaith dialogue organization. Its purpose is to provide opportunity for the national bodies of each faith to come together to build understanding and harmony in the Australian context. This organization is of great importance for interfaith dialogue in Australia as it teaches all people to live in harmony together. The Australian National Dialogue of Christians, Muslims, and Jews also aims to work together with the community and to teach others from different faiths and communities to work together in order to achieve their goals. Interfaith dialogue in Australia has been able to grow and become a very important part of Australian life through organisations. The Sikh Interfaith Council of Victoria is a non-profit organization, with an image to create greater awareness of Sikhs and Sikhism in the Australian community. The importance of this group in respect to interfaith dialogue also, is without it Sikhism would not have been able to build a network relationship with other religions. As a result of this organization interfaith in Australia between various religious traditions has been able to grow with one another. Living in harmony is not the only concern of the interfaith dialogue organisations. They are also concerned with the preservation and protection of the environment. Greenfaith Australia in Melbourne is an interfaith organisation that was established to bring together people from different faiths in responding to environmental issues. The actions of this group for interfaith dialogue are of great importance in Australia, as they are saving the world for our future generations to grow up in a healthy environment. Overall Ecumenical development and interfaith dialogue in Australia is of great importance. Without these, various religious traditions would not be able to communicate and work together in Australia. These issues have been taken seriously and organizations have been developed in order to make sure that all religions grow together in order to live in a better world and justice is received by all.

Friday, October 25, 2019

Herbal Medicine Essay -- essays research papers

Herbal medicine is the extraction of herbs or plants which have a medicinal value in treating illnesses and diseases (Brody 1). A herb is known as a plant that does not have a woody stem and usually dies back at the end of each growing season. It is also known as a "natural" drug because they are derived from nature. This is unlike pharmaceutical drugs, which are synthesized from chemicals. Herbal medicine dates back a very long time. More than 4,000 years ago, the Chinese emperor Qien Nong put a book together, or a herbal, of different medicinal plants (O’ Sullivan 2). It contained descriptions of more than 300 plants. Some of these plants are still used today. The Sumerians, at the same time recorded prescriptions on clay tablets. Also, the Egyptians recorded their information regarding medicine on rolls of papyrus. A very famous papyrus is the Ebers Papyrus, which includes specific information on how to use different plants (Brody 1). The Greeks and Romans learned about herbal medicine from these early civilizations. They also recorded them in books. We know of these works because they are translated into Arabic. Monks in Europe studied and grew plants for medicinal use. They translated the Arabic and that helped them with the plants. The first drugstores were in Baghdad (which is present day Iraq) in the 9th century (Smith 1). In the 13th century, major trade of herbs and spices occurred in London. Since there were no standards, bad quality herbs and wrong substitutes were often sold. Carolus Linneaus introduced the binomial system of plant nomenclature in 1753 (O’Sullivan 1). This helped identify plants scientifically, which helped to avoid mistakes between different plants. Many drugs commonly used today are of herbal origin. About one-quarter of the prescription drugs distributed by pharmacies in the United States contain at least one ingredient derived from plant material. Today, everyone from health care consumers to providers are learning about natural options to help with being healthy. â€Å"Herbalists, or individuals who use herbal remedies to alleviate pain, are on the rise in the United States† (Tremmel 1). In 1995, a survey was taken with about 600 physicians across the count... ...umerous kinds of herbal medicines available today. The best way of getting you money’s worth is by asking for the most popular one. This isn’t the only step, but also ask for any clinical trials, consult your doctor, and/or the company of the product. This way you can get the most effective product and be safe at the same time. I think that this new era of using natural herbal medicine is great and I support it greatly. Trying something new for a change is good. Even though some kinds of herbal medicine can produce harmful effects, many of the others are good. The only problem I see is that the Food and Drug Administration didn’t make it a requirement for the makers to submit studies on the drugs. Therefore, maybe sellers can make specific claims about preventing a disease even though it isn’t true. So if the FDA starts testing the medicines and helps separate the good from the bad then everything will be great. Thus, herbal medicine is medicine made from different parts of plants. They have become very popular in modern times. Some of these herbal medicines can be helpful while others can be harmful.

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Diversity from the Perspective of a Food Service Director Essay

An effective and successful â€Å"food service director† is somebody who has a heartfelt/genuine desire or yearning to establish, maintain, and continuously improve a hospitable and compassionate atmosphere for everyone regardless of what culture an individual belongs to or what beliefs he or she practices or what traditions he or she holds (Purdue University n. p. ). This means that a â€Å"food service director† should always be on the lookout on how to advance â€Å"cultural awareness, as well as, diversity† among its subordinates and everyone in the company he or she is working for, for that matter (Purdue University n. p. ). The subordinates of the â€Å"food service director† should be obliged to undergo â€Å"diversity training† wherein they will be taught certain languages or dialects that their clients speak (of course, this depends upon the location of their food service) (Purdue University n. p. ). For instance, in some places, there are mostly Filipinos and Spaniards who dine and so the â€Å"food service director† should make an effort to learn the language and even the culture of the aforementioned clients to make them feel that they are most welcome and so that they will also enjoy the service provided to them that will surely make them go back to that particular restaurant (Purdue University n. p. ). The same is true when it comes to the workforce of the â€Å"food service director†; he or she should be able to learn to respect other people’s cultures, practices, beliefs and be a perfect example for everybody he or she leads (UNESCO n. p. ). The â€Å"food service director† should be able to work with his or her subordinates effectively and this is a way to do it; upholding such will also improve the working relationship of the subordinates and thus they are motivated to become more productive as well (UNESCO n. p. ). Comparison of Culturally Diverse Groups For example, if we choose Filipinos as a culturally diverse group and compare its differences, as well as, similarities to the Americans, which in this case is the main-stream group, we will find out that for Filipinos, rice is a â€Å"major staple food† unlike Americans where they enjoy mashed potatoes a lot more than rice (BBC News n. p. ). Another difference that should be respected by the â€Å"food service director† is the use of eating utensils; he or she should be aware that Filipinos utilize spoon and fork typically instead of the spoon and knife that the Americans are used to (Kwintessential Cross Cultural Solutions n. p. ). In addition to the aforementioned, Filipinos usually arrive â€Å"fifteen to thirty minutes later† especially if it is a large party, unlike Americans who always pay particular attention to the time (Kwintessential Cross Cultural Solutions n. p. ). On the other hand, what these two cultures have in common is the fact that they dress properly when dining out (Kwintessential Cross Cultural Solutions n. p. ). Certain Accommodations/Adjustments that the Food Service Director has to Make There are several things that a Food Service Director can do and some of these are the following: First of all, it is important for the â€Å"food service director† to value certain differences (UNESCO n. p. ). This example portrayed by him or her will surely be instilled in his or her subordinates and will surely play a large role in the success of their service, and consequently that of their company as well (UNESCO n. p. ). Second, â€Å"food service director† has to learn the communication practices of their clients, for instance, there are certain cultures that appreciate being complimented on the clothes they wear and some think it is rude for strangers to comment on such personal issue; the â€Å"food service director† really has to develop tolerance for such (UNESCO n. p. ). The same is true with regards to suggesting on what food to order, in some cultures, they consider it rude if the â€Å"food service representatives† directly suggest; they appreciate it much better if they ask first before the â€Å"food service representatives† speak to them (UNESCO n. p. ). Third, the â€Å"food service director† has to be knowledgeable about certain languages that clients typically utilize to give them a sense of being exceedingly welcome (Purdue University n. p. ). Finally, the â€Å"food service director† has to uphold cultural awareness among his or her subordinates (Purdue University n. p. ). Conclusion It is important to be culturally aware so as to achieve more productivity; this is good for the food service business (Purdue University n. p. ). Furthermore, working relationships are upheld and maintained when the â€Å"food service director† and everyone around him is culturally-aware, this means that they value differences and that they respect each other (Purdue University n. p. ). Moreover, clients feel extra comfortable knowing that the places they dine at know, understand, and respect their culture, beliefs, and traditions as well (Purdue University n. p. ). This only shows that tolerance for culturally diversity is an extremely important issue nowadays and that properly/not properly addressing such issues will make or break a certain individual/career/business (Purdue University n. p. ). Works Cited BBC News. Rice Prices Hit Philippines Poor. 6 April 2008. n. a. 16 May 2008. http://news. bbc. co. uk/2/hi/business/7330168. stm Kwintessential Cross Cultural Solutions. Philippines: Language, Culture, Customs, and Etiquette. n. d. n. a. 16 May 2008. http://www. kwintessential. co. uk/resources/global-etiquette/philippines-country-profile. html Purdue University. Purdue Housing and Food Services Wins National Diversity Award. 13 November 2007. n. a. 16 May 2008. http://news. uns. purdue. edu/x/2007b/071113CoulsonDiversity. html UNESCO. Promoting Tolerance. 2007. n. a. 16 May 2008. http://portal. unesco. org/shs/en/ev. php-URL_ID=6551&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201. html

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Psy250 Biological and Humanistic Approaches to Personality

Biological and Humanistic Approaches to Personality The stages of human development are influenced by biological and humanistic theories. Maslow's hierarchy of needs stresses the need for and individual to discover their own personality and gain self-control in their personal life. Abraham Maslow had a theory that an individual will desire more in life once they have accomplished the basic needs in life. Humanistic features of personality focus on freedom and self-fulfillment. Unlike Maslow, Hans Eysenck and other theorist proclaimed that personality comes from a biological approach that an individual’s behavior is influenced by genetics.The following will consist of a description of how Maslow’s hierarchy of needs influence personality formations, biological factors that influence the formation of personality, the examination of the relationship of biological factors by Maslow’s theory of personality, along with basic aspects of humanistic theories incompatible with biological descriptions of personality. Maslow's hierarchy of needs is a theory of human motivation based on biological, safety, love and belongingness, esteem, and self- actualization.Personality is influenced by ideas that create a foundation of an individual's life relations and peak experiences. An individual's experiences assist an individual to transform and discover the inner self. Peak experiences are familiar to individuals whom have matured and discovered their full potential. Maslow believed that individuals strive for self-actualization once they have satisfied their more basic needs. Maslow also characterized self-actualization as being the most superior out of all hierarchy needs.Each of Maslow's hierarchy of needs define the patterns of human motivations for an individual to survive. Each stage also defines the personality growth in humans as well as in animals. The simplest level of needs must mature before the individual will be motivated to achieve higher need s. Biological needs are the simplest and main requirements for human survival such as water, food, air, and shelter. Maslow's hierarchy of human needs is categorized in two groups D-motives and B-motives (Friedman & Schustack,  2012, pg304). Biological needs are the needs of the body that uphold homeostasis.Food, water, and air are requirements for individuals to survive and produce a steady foundation for growth. Safety needs are crucial in protecting self for growth. Individuals who are smart, tough, fast, consistent, and organized have recognized a defense of security for survival. Challenges associated with the external urges influence defense mechanisms such as repression, denial, displacement, reaction formation, regression, sublimation, projection, and rationalization. Each defense mechanism allows people to protect their ego.Therefore allowing them to avoid posttraumatic stress and continue to strive toward self-actualization. Love and belongingness reflects off safety. Hu mans need to feel a sense of belongingness and love. If love comes from a social group, religious group, classmates, coworkers, family members, and friends, individuals need to love and be loved by others. Without the features of love an individual may become an object to social anxiety and depression. The need for belonging can overcome the biological and security needs, depending on the power of peer pressure from other individuals.Humans have a self-esteem influenced by self-respect. Esteem shows importance and appreciation, which influences the accomplishments of receiving a great education, career, friends, and respect. Individuals with low esteem require respect and attention from others but on the other hand high esteem requires self-respect along with self-confidence. The maximum developed need detects to be at peace with oneself. Self-actualized individuals are independent, choose privacy, love, freedom, and avoid social stress (Friedman & Schustack,  2012 pg305).Biologic al factors such as chromosomes, hormones, and the brain all have a main influence on human behavior. Biological factors that influence personality can involve genetics, disease, drugs, and medical disorders. Personality can be affected by many factors. Psychologist considers personality traits as sensors inside the brain, controlling a limit of behaviors and attitudes (Nettle, 2008). Sensor settings characterize where an individual stands on a measurement for each personality trait.The Big Five traits characterize the strength of certain type of psychological reaction, which depends on certain neurobiological mechanism in the brain (Nettle, 2008). Genetics considers being an influence to personality. Genetics are the primary involvement of personality. Genes affect how an individual's body and brain matures and functions. Individuals who may suffer from loss of genes on a specific chromosome contribute to disorders that genetic factors strongly influence personality (Friedman, Schus tack 2012 pg147). Personality can be affected by disease in which traits may onnect with how individuals handle situations and the emotional results that situations at hand create. It is believed that genetics influence the simplest characteristics. Hormones and brain structure influence behavior but neither has an effect on personality traits. Genes do not have control over personality traits but on the other hand genes influences behavior. The nervous system contributes to notification of the surrounding and dangers of the environment but also emphasizes the notion of importance of appropriate behavior.Biological theories have a stronger impact on personality than humanistic theories may have. Health issues such as mental illness, cancer, high blood pressure, and depression also can have an effect on an individual's personality. The medications that are prescribed to an individual to treat health issues may also have an impact on the personality. Illegal drugs and the abuse of alc ohol can contribute to the changes of personalities that have been established but triggered by chemicals within the drugs and alcohol.The nervous system and the growth of the brain both contributes to biological factors that are influenced by the environment an individual places themselves in and not only by genes. Humanistic approach attempts to stress an individual’s inner personality and spirit. Humanistic approach also stresses the viewpoint of being human. In addition, the humanistic approach also proclaims that individuals focus on the ability of other human beings having an effect on their personality.According to (Friedman & Schustack,  2012 pg291) attending small groups such as human potential movements, which started in the over fifty years ago, with other individuals whom have established all their hierarchy needs in life may influence an individual to become more creative and establish a level of self-fulfillment. In the humanistic approach, the theory is an ef fort that stresses the values and an individual's self-worth. Life matures while individuals plan their lives and take actions for their responsibility.Each individual must learn to have self-control and perform discipline to obtain a healthy lifestyle. Obtaining a healthy lifestyle will contribute to an individual discovering their inner potential. Humanistic believes that spiritual growth and awareness grounds personality in the full appreciation of the everyday world (Friedman & Schustack,  2012 pg303). Humanistic theorists focus on each individual’s personality, appreciation of naturalness, and the value of life (Friedman & Schustack,  2012 pg304). Humanistic theories follow the belief that every individual has their life and is in control of their own free will.Humanistic approach also influences an individual's feelings rather than thought process. Biological theories follow the belief that genetics influence the control of personality. The basic concepts of humanis tic and biological theories are different similarities. Healthy people must take responsibility for themselves, regardless of the actions and therefore, negative actions do not contradict the value of the person. Biological theories focus on thought or reason rather than feelings for self-worth and value. Biological theorists believe that genetics have an influence on an individual's personality.This secondary affect controls how a person develops into adulthood. Biological standpoints also teach that intelligence and genes determine a person’s personality. For example, twins who have similar traits or personalities share the same genetic traits. Genetics can also have an effect on how an individual copes with their personality. A child's childhood environment plays an extremely high influence on the outcome of an individual's personality as well. Therefore, biologic theorists believe that personality traits are genetic therefore, unavoidable.Some theorists believe that a com bination of psychotherapy and drug therapy could correct poor personality traits, leading to a productive life. Humanistic therapists believe that a productive life is an accomplishment of completing each stage of Maslow's hierarchy of needs life. Poor personality traits are learned not inherited but can be changed if willing. References Friedman, H. S. & Schustack, M. W. (2012). Personality: Classic theories and modern research (5th ed. ). Boston: Pearson/Allyn & Bacon. Nettle, D. (2008). Embrace your personality New Scientist, 197(2642), 36-39.

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

Learning Through Playful And Formal Methods Children And Young People Essay Essays

Learning Through Playful And Formal Methods Children And Young People Essay Essays Learning Through Playful And Formal Methods Children And Young People Essay Essay Learning Through Playful And Formal Methods Children And Young People Essay Essay Play has been characterized as an of import tool which fosters childrens larning accomplishments in several spheres such as linguistic communication and communicating, knowledge, and socialisation. This paper illustrates groundss that play enhances kids s problem-solving accomplishments and self-regulatory public presentation and metacognition by utilizing a job work outing undertaking ( comparing between finishing times of a jigsaw mystifier ) . During that task a self-regulatory theoretical account was used in order to enter the address. Thirty kids aged 40 to 55 months ( average age 3:9 ) involved in either playful or formal status. Results show that the cognitive public presentation which includes the job resolution, the self-regulation and metacognition is significantly improved through the playful status. Introduction Play is regarded as an of import activity which facilitates larning and development and enhances accomplishments in knowledge, socialisation, communicating, self-awareness, job resolution and sensory-motor map ( Stagnitti, 2004, p. 9 ) . Therefore, drama is seen from the early childhood plans as the basic attack of instruction for immature kids ( McInnes, Howard, Miles and Crowley, 2009 ) . However, many surveies have been conducted to give an recognized definition but the bulk of the efforts to specify drama cause restrictions to research which tend to exemplify the developmental potency of drama ( Thomas, Howard and Miles, 2006 ) . Owing to the fact that the nature of drama is non a predictable state of affairs, a hard phenomenon to interpret, it has provoked serious challenges to research workers. There are many research workers who province that the acquisition results are largely fostered by drama and others who possess a more conservative position about the relationship between drama and acquisition, peculiarly larning derives from many activities whereby drama has a more confined function ( Whitebread, Coltman, Jameson and Lander, 2009 ) . In order to exemplify a direct relation between drama and acquisition, research workers have focused on the impact of drama on job resolution activities. However, these surveies included many methodological failings because they did non gaining control and step the impact of the internal, affectional quality of drama which is gaiety ( McInnes et al. , 2009, p.32 ) . To understand gaiety Thomas et al. , ( 2009 ) have referred to practicians that have to larn kids s perceptual experiences of drama. The above impression is outstanding because this survey demonstrates two conditions in order to measure the impacts of drama on acquisition, the playful and the formal status. Furthermore, in line with Howard ( 2002 ) , who mentions that drama is adequately comprehendible from early old ages kids, this survey manipulated kids s perceptual experiences about drama in order to clear up the differences between playful and non playful patterns. Adults can be independent by pull offing their behaviour and emotions automatically without necessitating to believe, that is, they are able to self-regulate. During early childhood self-regulation occurs bit by bit and kids use egoistic address in order to work out a hard state of affairs. As kids grow up, their address switches to inner address and the soliloquies cut down. The self-regulatory linguistic communication kids use during early childhood is really of import for their development in assorted spheres. Interestingly, in playful activities kids use more self-regulatory linguistic communication than in non-playful state of affairss ( Howard and McInnes, 2013 ) . Indeed, in Whitebread et al. , ( 2009 ) survey were recorded many self-regulatory vocalizations by kids in playful state of affairss. The present survey provides grounds which suggests that drama contributes to larn by back uping the development of self-regulatory accomplishments and problem-solving accomplishments. Method Design This survey included a participants design and consisted of two experimental conditions. The independent variable was the class of status, that is, whether the kids practiced in playful or non-playful state of affairss. The dependent variables were the problem-solving mark betterment and the figure of self-regulatory vocalizations. A three-stage process was conducted, specifically the former-test, which included the clip taken for kids to finish the saber saw mystifier, the pattern five minute period which included the playful and non-playful conditions in which kids completed the activity. At this phase the self-regulatory vocalizations were recorded in each of the above conditions. Finally, the latter-test phase was elaborated two yearss after the drama or non play status and it measured the clip kids needed to finish the saber saw mystifier after the pattern in order to insulate acquisition and drama. The step of the efficaciousness was calculated by deducting the former-test clip from the latter-test times. Furthermore, the efficaciousness was calculated by mensurating the self-acting vocalizations. Participants The chance sample consisted of 30 kids ( 15 male childs and 15 misss ) from the same primary school category in South Wales who participated in the survey. The age of the kids was from 40 to 55 months ( average age 3:9 ) . Materials A digital voice recording equipment was used in order to enter the self-regulatory vocalizations during the pattern phase of the survey. At the same clip a camera was besides used to capture kids s motions and to verify the voice recording equipment s findings as good. For the job work outing activity saber saw mystifiers were chosen, peculiarly four mystifiers which did non picture gender based heroes and consisted of 24 big pieces. Each clip one mystifier was given to the kids in the former-test and the latter-test. Besides, the mystifiers did non picture existent life images but they portrayed abstract colored images. They were from the same fabrication company including the same hero in different state of affairss and each one was picturing a babys room rime. The specific mystifiers had neer been used in schools. Experimental conditions It was of importance to make contexts wherein kids would move playfully or non. Therefore, the cues that manipulated were emotional and environmental and included the voluntary temperament of a kid, the environment in which the pattern was held and the grownups presence. Hence, kids during the playful status were invited to take part and play on the floor for five proceedingss without the grownup s presence. On the other manus, kids during the non play status were told to take part at the tabular array for five proceedingss with the grownup s presence. Procedure Six schoolrooms were used for this survey. Three of them included a tabular array with two chairs and the others were empty. At the beginning of the undertaking each kid was shown the mystifier in the schoolrooms with the tabular array and the chairs and so was asked if he identified the rime. Subsequently on, the rime was narrated by the kid with the research worker s aid and the of import properties of the mystifier s image were described every bit good. Next, the saber saw mystifier was taken apart and the pieces were shuffled. The research worker recorded the clip it took the kid to finish the mystifier. After the completion the kids were allocated to either the playful or non-playful state of affairs and they were timed once more over the five minute pattern period. During the playful and non-playful state of affairs kids s self-regulatory vocalizations were recorded by the voice recording equipment and picture cameras which were placed in non-visible locations inside the school rooms. In peculiar, harmonizing to Livingston, ( 1997 ) this survey coded the self-regulatory vocalizations with a theoretical account which involved three chief facets of metacognition, the metacognitive cognition, the metacognitive ordinance and the emotional and motivational ordinance. Consequences Problem work outing betterment between the two groups For group A ( play status ) the average clip for finishing the mystifier between the former and the latter trial was 9.6 ( SD = 1.99 ) and for group B ( not-play status ) was 7.06 ( SD = 2.76 ) . The tonss from participants in the drama and non play pattern conditions were compared utilizing an unrelated t-test ( one tailed ) . Children in the playful pattern status performed better than kids in the non-playful pattern status ( p=0.0037 ) . The relationship between the age of kids and their tonss on the job work outing undertaking were investigated utilizing Pearsons correlativity. There was a positive relationship between the two steps ( r=0.90 ) , Figure 1. Older kids scored more extremely on the job work outing undertaking. Self-regulatory vocalizations The average figure of regulative vocalizations in playful state of affairs was 14.33 ( SD = 7.66 ) and during the non-playful status was 9.06 ( SD = 5.67 ) . From the 351 self-regulatory events 215 occurred on playful status ( 61.25 % ) and 136 during the non-playful status ( 38.74 % ) . Again, the tonss from participants in the drama and the formal pattern conditions were compared utilizing an unrelated t-test ( one tailed ) . Children in the playful pattern status performed better than kids in the non-playful state of affairs ( p=0.020 ) . Pearsons correlativity trial was used in order to look into the relationship between the age of kids and their tonss in the self-regulatory vocalizations. There was a negative relationship between the two steps ( r=-0.69 ) , Figure 2. Younger kids scored expressed more vocalizations. Discussion Findingss support the research inquiry that kids will be enhanced by playful patterns instead than formal conditions in the cognitive spheres of job resolution and self-regulatory and metacognition and that age plays an of import function in connexion with the above crucial spheres. As can be seen from the findings, there was a important difference between the two groups sing the job work outing undertaking. In other words, it can be inferred that drama positively influenced kids s cognitive public presentation. Furthermore, as kids grow up their cognitive accomplishments become more advanced, that is, they have an unconditioned sensitivity to get the hang more complex cognitive accomplishments when they are older. McInnes, Howard, Miles and Crowley ( 2009 ) stated in their survey that kids who practiced under playful instead than formal conditions illustrated significantly greater cognitive public presentation. Indeed, our survey supports the McInnes et al. , ( 2009 ) findings, because all kids performed better with jigsaw mystifiers during the playful state of affairss. Furthermore, kids expressed more self-regulatory vocalizations during the playful pattern status instead than the formal status, that is, harmonizing to these findings play provided more cognit ive challenges to kids. In line with the survey of Whitebread et al. , ( 2009 ) , kids express higher degrees of private address during drama and as reported by Vygotsky kids tend to speak to themselves whilst they are set abouting an activity, in making so, they learn to utilize linguistic communication to self-regulate their activities. However, the survey of Whitebread et Al. ( 2009 ) , has restrictions in comparing to our research, such us the deficiency of experimental control. For case, the above survey does non implement the experimental conditions of playful and non-playful conditions, hence at that place was non an expressed difference in kids s perceptual experiences whether a state of affairs was playful or non and whether grownups were right originating drama and arousing kids s self-regulatory vocalizations or non. Tellingly, the current survey dissociated whether there was a playful status or non by lucubrating emotional and environmental cues. As reported by Howard ( 2002 ) , kids possess the ability to separate drama or non play state of affairss based on their experience, hence in our survey kids were able to distinguish each status because they manipulated the cues given in both conditions. Consequences, showed that the age and the self-regulatory vocalizations are considered inextricably linked, due to the fact that the older kids showed a lower mark than the younger participants. In other words, it is obvious that as kids grow up their frequence of showing egoistic address reduces and becomes more interior address. Harmonizing to Gray and MacBlain ( 2012 ) , Piaget stated that kids from an early age project their ideas with the mediate tool of address, which he called egoist. However, as kids become more cognizant of societal outlooks egoistic address begins to melt and speech is internalized p. ( 46 ) . It is deserving adverting that the sample taken for this survey was kids from the same primary school category that is the bulk of kids were taught in a specific context, therefore the stimulation they received were limited. Furthermore, the school provided merely six schoolrooms during the procedure which caused defeat to the big figure of kids. The school should hold provided more schoolrooms for the survey needs. Last but non least future surveies should concentrate on the diverseness of the acquisition activities during the rating of the playful conditions in relation with larning results. Finally, by understanding the cues that kids use to show whether they want to move in a playful status or non, early old ages practicians will go more adept and will supply more acquisition chances associated with drama activities.

Monday, October 21, 2019

The 5 Smallest States in the U.S.

The 5 Smallest States in the U.S. The United States is made up of 50 individual states that vary greatly in size. When talking about land area, Rhode Island ranks as the smallest. Yet, when we discuss population, Wyoming- the 10th largest state by area- comes in with the smallest population. The 5 Smallest States by Land Area If youre familiar with U.S. geography, you might be able to guess which are the smallest states in the country. Notice that four of the five smallest states are along the eastern coast where the states seem to be crammed into a very small area.   1) Rhode Island- 1,034 square miles (2,678 square kilometers) Rhode Island is only 48 miles in length and 37 miles wide  (77  x 59 kilometers).Rhode Island has over 384 miles (618 kilometers) of coastline.The highest point is Jerimoth Hill in Foster at 812 feet (247.5 meters). 2) Delaware- 1,949  square miles (5,047  square kilometers) Delaware is 96 miles (154 kilometers) in length. At its thinnest point, it is only 9 miles (14 kilometers) wide.Delaware has 117 miles of coastline.The highest point is Ebright Azimuth at 447.85 feet (136.5 meters). 3) Connecticut- 4,842 square miles (12,542 square kilometers) Connecticut is only 110 miles long and 70 miles wide  (177  x 112 kilometers).Connecticut has 618 miles (994.5  kilometers)  of shoreline.The highest point is the southern slope of  Mt. Frissell at 2,380 feet (725 meters). 4) Hawaii- 6,423  square miles (16,635 square kilometers) Hawaii is a chain of 132 islands, eight of which are considered principal islands. These include Hawaii (4028 square  miles), Maui (727 square  miles), Oahu (597 square  miles), Kauai (562 square miles), Molokai (260 square  miles), Lanai (140 square miles), Niihau (69 square  miles), and Kahoolawe (45 square  miles).Hawaii has 750 miles of coastline.The highest point is Mauna Kea at  13,796 feet (4,205 meters). 5) New Jersey- 7,354 square miles (19,047 square kilometers) New Jersey  is only 170  miles long and 70 miles wide (273 x 112 kilometers).New Jersey has 1,792 miles (2884  kilometers)  of shoreline.The highest point is High Point at 1,803 feet (549.5 meters). The 5 Smallest States by Population When we turn to look at the population, we get an entirely different perspective of  the country. With the exception of Vermont, the states with the lowest population are among the largest by land area and theyre all in the western half of the country. A low population with a large amount of land means a very low population density (or people per square mile). 1) Wyoming- 579,315 people Ranks as the 10th largest in land area -  97,093 square miles (251,470 square kilometers)Population density: 5.8 people per square mile 2) Vermont- 623,657  people Ranks as the  45th  largest in land area -  9,217  square miles (23,872 square kilometers)Population density: 67.9 people per square mile 3) North Dakota- 755,393   Ranks as the  19th  largest in land area- 69,000  square miles (178,709 square kilometers)Population density: 9.7 people per square mile 4) Alaska- 739,795   Ranks as the largest state in  land area- 570,641  square miles (1,477,953 square kilometers)Population density: 1.2  people per square mile 5) South Dakota- 869,666 Ranks as the  17th  largest in  land area- 75,811 square miles (196,349 square kilometersPopulation density: 10.7  people per square mile (Population counts according to the July 2017 census estimates.) Source US Census Bureau. â€Å"Census.gov.†Ã‚  Census Bureau QuickFacts,

Sunday, October 20, 2019

Operational Definition of Behavior in a School Setting

Operational Definition of Behavior in a School Setting   An operational definition of behavior is a tool for understanding and managing behaviors in a school setting. It is an explicit definition that makes it possible for two or more disinterested observers to identify the same behavior when observed, even when it occurs in very different settings. Operational definitions of behavior are vital to defining a target behavior for both a  Functional Behavior Analysis  (FBA) and a  Behavior Intervention Program  (BIP). While operational definitions of behavior can be used to describe personal behaviors, they can also be used to describe academic behaviors. To do this, the teacher defines the academic behavior the child should exhibit. Why Operational Definitions Are Important It can be very difficult to describe a behavior without being subjective or personal. Teachers have their own perspectives and expectations which can, even inadvertently, become part of a description. For example, Johnny should have known how to line up, but instead chose to run around the room, assumes that Johnny had the capacity to learn and generalize the rule and that he made an active choice to misbehave. While this description may be accurate, it may also be incorrect: Johnny may not have understood what was expected or may have started running without intending to misbehave. Subjective descriptions of behavior can make it difficult for the teacher to effectively understand and address the behavior.  To understand and address the behavior, its extremely important to understand how the behavior  functions.  In other words, by defining behavior in terms of what can clearly be seen, we are able to also examine the antecedents and consequences of the behavior. If we know what happens before and after the behavior, we can better understand what instigates and/or reinforces the behavior. Finally, most student behaviors occur in multiple settings over time. If Jack tends to lose focus in math, hes likely to lose focus in ELA (English Language Arts) as well. If Ellen is acting out in first grade, chances are shell still be acting out (at least to some degree) in second grade. Operational definitions are so specific and objective that they can describe the same behavior in different settings and at different times, even when different people are observing the behavior. How to Create Operational Definitions The operational definition should become part of any data that is collected in order to establish a baseline for measuring behavioral change. This means the data should include metrics (numerical measures). For example, rather than writing Johnny leaves his desk during class without permission, its more useful to write Johnny leaves his desk two to four times per day for ten minutes at a time without permission. The metrics make it possible to determine whether the behavior is improving as a result of interventions. For example, if Johnny is still leaving his desk but now hes only leaving once a day for five minutes at a time, there has been a dramatic improvement. Operational definitions should also be part of the Functional Behavioral Analysis (FBA) and the Behavior Intervention Plan (known as the BIP). If you have checked off behavior in the special considerations section of the Individual Education Program (IEP) you are required by federal law to create these important behavior documents in order to address them.   Operationalizing the definition (determining why it happens and what it accomplishes) will also help you identify the replacement behavior.  When you can operationalize the behavior and identify the function, you can find a behavior that is incompatible with the target behavior, replaces the reinforcement of the target behavior, or cant be done at the same time as the target behavior.   Operational Definition of Behavior Non-operational (subjective) definition:  John blurts out questions in class. Which class? What does he blurt? How often does he blurt? Is he asking questions that relate to the class? Operational  definition, behavior:  John blurts out relevant questions without raising his hand three to five times during each ELA class. Analysis: John is paying attention to the content of the class, as he is asking relevant questions. He is not, however, focusing on the rules of classroom behavior. In addition, if he has quite a few relevant questions, he may be having trouble understanding the ELA content at the level its being taught. It is likely that John could benefit from a refresher on classroom etiquette and some ELA tutoring to be sure he is working at grade level and is in the right class based on his academic profile. Non-operational (subjective) definition:  Jamie throws temper tantrums during recess. Operational  Definition, behavior:  Jamie shouts, cries, or throws objects each time she participates in group activities during recess (three to five times per week).   Analysis: Based on this description, it sounds like Jamie only becomes upset when she is involved with group activities but not when she is playing alone or on playground equipment. This suggests that she may have difficulty in understanding the rules of play or social skills required for group activities, or that someone in the group is intentionally setting her off. A teacher should observe Jamies experience and develop a plan that helps her to build skills and/or changes the situation on the playground. Non-operational (subjective) definition:  Emily will read at the second-grade  level. What does that mean? Can she answer comprehension questions? What kind of comprehension questions?  How many words per minute? Operational Definition, academic: Emily will read a passage of 100 or more words at the 2.2 grade level with 96 percent accuracy. Accuracy in reading is understood  as the number of correctly read words divided by the total number of words. Analysis:  This definition is focused on reading fluency, but not on reading comprehension. A separate definition should be developed for Emilys reading comprehension. By separating these metrics, it will be possible to determine whether Emily is a slow reader with good comprehension, or whether she is having trouble with both fluency and comprehension.

Saturday, October 19, 2019

Philosophy Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words - 2

Philosophy - Essay Example Wisdom about origin, therefore, can be said to have come from traditional religious practices, from people who are thought to have supernatural powers as declared by â€Å"God†. These are very religious by nature. However, by 6 BC there are non-religious thinkers in Greece that were called the Milesians. Unlike the traditional, supernatural people, these people are thought to have conducted their thinking through reason and observation, not by tradition or by a right from the Gods. These people are the first philosophers. Although their view is quite simple, the basic thought of thinking (which is secular inquiry) is considered philosophy. However, there are many forms of secular inquiry these days, so what makes philosophy different from, say, science? Before, at the beginning, there was no distinction but as time went by, they went and formed new disciplines. First, it was mathematics then it was natural philosophy (or science, as it is called now). Now, whenever a question cannot be answered by these two fields, it is then referred to modern philosophy. Questions like â€Å"What is the meaning of life?†. But of course, philosophy is best known for asking the most difficult and most basic of questions, like if Gods do exist or not, or what is good or evil. Philosophy is also defined by its methods. Although not as conceptual as science, philosophy is governed by logic. Like scientists, though, they formulate hypothesis that would answer the question by reason. Unlike religion, which is usually found on mysticism. There are four branches of philosophy: logic, epistemology, metaphysics and axiology. II. The Milesians The earliest known philosophers are from Miletus, hence they are called the Milesians. They are Thales, Anaximander and Anaximenes. They are also called Presocratic Philosophers – basically philosophers before Socrates. Thales is most famous for his three beliefs: everything is made up of water, magnets have souls and everythin g is full of gods. Now back then, everyone thought that matter is made up of four distinct elements: water, air, fire and earth. These elements, with different combinations, can transform into different objects. Now, Thales argued that these elements are actually just other forms of water. Thales probably observed that water has three forms and phases: solid, liquid and gas – leading him to say that. Perhaps, he thought, that water in the solid state could become metal; it would be vapor at some point and it may form fire. There is also this theory that Thales observed that when you water the plant, the plant becomes healthy – as if water is transformed from its liquid state and into a plant. Magnets have souls – magnets seem to have life as they behave like living things. They move. Thales took this as evidence that magnets have souls. Ancient Greeks have this distinction between living and nonliving things. Things with souls are alive and anything with a soul would be active. For him, the soul is not something that is added onto an object that can be separated, but rather, it is an inseparable part of an object. For the third belief about â€Å"everything is full of gods†, then maybe Thales is insinuating that maybe everything is also full of souls as in souls = gods. If that is the case, then Thales would be insinuating that all things are living things but they may not move actively like the magnets that only move at certain times and situations. Anaximander claims that everything is mad

Friday, October 18, 2019

Islamic Banking and finance Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 4500 words

Islamic Banking and finance - Essay Example t, lack of technological support and sophistication for dealing with long drawn projects and existence of information asymmetry in relation to unique products offered by Islamic banks (Abduh and Omah, 2012). The paper is aimed at a detailed discussion of Islamic Banking development and foundations that lay the basis for their banking system. The paper attempts to understand critical aspects of the Islamic banking system and one of its critical schemes of profit and loss sharing mechanism within their lending process. Through an understanding of the PLS structure, the paper comprehends reasons for its unpopularity and reduced acceptance over other modes of finance, despite its evident advantages. The identification of problems also brings forth solution to problems associated with PLS finance. The paper makes recommendations to improve and revive the PLS finance based on such comprehensive analysis. With independence of Muslim community, it has been increasingly felt that modern financial institutions need to come into the Islamic Banking system and run in compliance with the Islamic sensitivity. The first degree of concrete steps towards combining modern day finance with Islam was seen in Egypt through Mit Ghamur project of savings in 1963 (Al-Alwani and El-Ansary, 1998). This project refrained from calling themselves to be Islamic in nature, yet there was an inherent culture of providing financial intermediation, as per teachings of the Islamic community. Dubai Islamic Bank was the first of its kind in commercial modern Islamic Banking and was founded in 1975 (Thomas, 2006). Out of a total of 176 Islamic banks as of 2006 that have been registered with Bankscope, 70% have been reported to be concentrated in Middle East. The remaining is split between South East Asia with 17% and Sub-Saharan Africa with 15% (Al-Hejailan, 2000). The report by Alvi (2010) also states that develop ment of organizational structures towards more sophisticated financial instruments like,

Psychological Biological Bases of Behavioral Replies to Classmates Essay

Psychological Biological Bases of Behavioral Replies to Classmates Papers- - Essay Example 41). Generally, the paper presents details in precise manners, carefully satisfying what is asked of the author. Reference Smith, F. P. (2001). Neurology and neurosurgery: Basic principles. Suffolk, UK: University of Rochester Press. sara9.doc Both the pyramidal and extrapyramidal systems have delineated functions in movement. In her paper, Holland accomplishes the tasks of describing the structures and known functions of both systems. The parts of the pyramidal systems are presented together with their anatomy and physiology, including the importance of decussation. Paralysis as a result of injury to either upper or lower motor neurons and their corresponding affected sides are mentioned, but specific conditions to exemplify them are not given. The different extrapyramidal tracts are also elaborated with their specific functions. The paper concludes by briefly passing through the discussed points, but an idea probably overlooked is that a dichotomy between the pyramidal and extrapyr amidal systems do not really exist, where both of these descending tract systems are interconnected with the basal ganglia anatomically and functionally (Noback et al., 2005, p. 419). Reference Noback, C. R., Strominger, N. L., Demarest, R. J., & Ruggiero, D. A. (Eds.). (2005). Nervous system: Structure and function (6th ed.). Totowa, NJ: Humana Press maggie4.doc Tygart’s article on the significance of the concentration of potassium ions in the neuron relative to the concentration of sodium ions in the extracellular fluid and the contrast between the inhibitory and excitatory postsynaptic potentials is clearly and comprehensively stated. Beginning with a background on the fundamentals of a neuron and how it works, she enables readers not to â€Å"get lost† in her article. The importance of the sodium-potassium pump and its balance is emphasized to play key roles in life functions, and the effects of imbalances are also presented. Through this carefully-written paper, t he author implies to readers that indeed the said system is important in the human body. To take as an example, the case of using potassium chloride in lethal injection is evidence that induced unregulated amounts of potassium can cause death (Bear, Connors, & Paradiso, 2007, p. 72). Reference Bear, M. F., Connors, B. W., & Paradiso, M. A. (2007). Neuroscience: Exploring the brain (3rd ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Lipponcott Williams & Wilkins. overlie.doc The human brain is likened to a high-rise executive office complex, and the tour given in the article is detailed in its structures and form. By emphasizing on the different divisions and then elaborating on it systematically, the investor may be more compelled to buy the investment. The article presents how the human brain is capable of performing numerous and complex tasks, and how it controls our life functions. It is also noticed that despite the wonders of the brain, malfunction may occur as a result of damage in a certain part, a nd exemplified in the paper is Huntington’s chorea. Moritz (2005) illustrates the brain’s capability to do numerous tasks in one setting in the case of an artist working his art, minding his music, the audience, and various functions and responses that would affect his performance (pp. 39-40). Indeed, â€Å"

Knowledge and skills for nursing part 2 assessment Essay

Knowledge and skills for nursing part 2 assessment - Essay Example Based on the background check patient had suffered severe depression because her husband died and live alone. The patient became alcoholic and her health deteriorated because of malnutrition. The patient looks underweight but can survive by giving proper medication and patient care. The nursing process can best be described as a framework for planning individualized care for patient with intellectual disabilities. Since the care for patient is a process it does not conclude into anything but rather it changes constantly and it is the nurses' responsibility to respond to these changing needs whenever necessary. The nursing process usually comprises four or five stages depending on the resources available and work setting, and includes: diagnosis, assessment, planning, implementing and evaluation. The nursing process should be undertaken using a collaborative and participative approach with other professionals, gathering and implementing resources, in order to improve the care process (Department of Health 2000b; Department of Health 2001). The focus of this study will be on the design care plan for our patient on study. The patient was brought in the hospital because of diarrhoea and vomiting. ... It includes areas such as health and health needs, daily living skills, activity programmes, mobility, mental health, risks to the client, finance, respite, social events/outings, support requirements, spiritual needs and, possibly, accommodation issues (Department of Health, 2000b;Sox, 2004a). Our patient on study has been diagnosed to have severe diarrhoea, but upon assessment the medical team handling the patient found out deeper reason for having such condition. The patient based on its medical background is having depression due to the lost of a husband. This has made the patient to neglect herself and become alcoholic. As a result of a deeper assessment the patient is also suffering from malnutrition. The care plan will be focusing on this condition of the patient. The chosen model should cover the entire activity of the patient. Planning In planning, the nurse plays an important role in the recovery and stay of the patient in the hospital. The patient upon admission was given attention on the main complain which is diarrhoea and vomiting. However further diagnosis and assessment of the medical team discovered that the patient is suffering from malnutrition. Our plan focus on malnutrition; the reasons why the patient is having this kind of condition, and the treatment and the protocol that the nurses should follow for the welfare of the patient. Implementation Implementation of a care plan is the most challenging part of the nursing process. Patient who is suffering from depression will lead to intellectual disabilities and an appropriate care plan should be implemented. In the case of our patient, she suffers depression after her husband dies wherein she depends on a lot. This make her

Thursday, October 17, 2019

Sustainable Development and Provision of Quality Life Options Assignment

Sustainable Development and Provision of Quality Life Options - Assignment Example Nevertheless, ‘needs’ mechanism enable organizations and individuals to compromise on environmental pollution, this pollution due to overconsumption develops the unliveable environment for the future generation in long term. ‘Needs’ initiate such processes for which short-term benefit is assessed and collected, but their long-term and wider detrimental impact on the planet is not taken into consideration. Subsequently, Sustainable development forwards a balanced approach to life, which brings social, governmental, and economic restrictions for the sake of better future. Vivid examples of poor unsustainable development can commonly be observed like hefty financial crises due to negligent banking and governmental policies, increase in air pollution due to fossil fuel burning, pacific garbage patch due to waste dumped in the sea, deforestation, no-recycling, ecological issues due to pesticides and chemical fertilizers and etc. Poor quality of air in Urban or industrial areas develop smog that contains sulfur dioxide, carbon dioxide, nitrogen and carbon mono oxide. These toxic gases are lethal for lungs and can cause long-term respiratory issues, change in human organ functions, and also cardiovascular syndrome as well. Similarly, noise pollution of heavy traffic, industrial units, constructional activities and various machines can cause hearing impediments, sleep disorders, aggressive temperament, stress, cardiovascular syndromes and many more. Pollution of any type is due to short-term benefit and lack of long-term planning according to sustainable development. Hygiene issues due to water pollution in heavily populated areas can cause people and their future generations to suffer from numerous health issues as well. The above-mentioned issues are a result of unsustainable development, inadequate urban planning, and functioning in the recent world. However, to adopt sustainable development lifestyle efforts are required to remodel current and existing processes into sustainable processes, and consumption needs into sustainable consumption.  Ã‚  

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

The organisational culture and employee behavior Essay

The organisational culture and employee behavior - Essay Example The following qualities will be examined in detail in the essay; All the above character traits can be used by leaders to influence organisational culture and hence employee behaviour. First of all, there will be a need to change corporate communication in order to create an open and transparent organisational culture. This can be achieved through giving clear communication thus eliminating here-say among members of the organisation. This enhances the way employees perceive themselves and will also affect their behaviour (Robbins, 2004) Decision making within any organisation needs to be done in such a way that it enhances independence. Employees need to feel that their respective organisations trust them to the point of allowing them to make decisions within the organisations. Experts have suggested that organisations where there is less bureaucracy in the process of decision making are generally more efficient. The reason why this occurs is that most employees will not waste time trying to maintain protocol. Details of how mangers can achieve this will be examined in the essay. Leaders need to motivate their employees. There are various ways in which this can be achieved; through reward systems, through allowances, flexible working hours and holiday provisions. Employees can also be motivated by possessing greater autonomy in the decision making process. Details of how managers can achieve this will be analysed in the essay. The overall effect of motivation is that it makes workers more energised. This can create a culture of hard work and will be manifested through employee behaviour. These interlink age will be elaborated further in the essay. (Dessler, 2001) The essay will also look at other quality traits that managers can utilise to influence their employees. This can be achieved through justice and honesty when handling employee cases. Leaders also need to employ

Sustainable Development and Provision of Quality Life Options Assignment

Sustainable Development and Provision of Quality Life Options - Assignment Example Nevertheless, ‘needs’ mechanism enable organizations and individuals to compromise on environmental pollution, this pollution due to overconsumption develops the unliveable environment for the future generation in long term. ‘Needs’ initiate such processes for which short-term benefit is assessed and collected, but their long-term and wider detrimental impact on the planet is not taken into consideration. Subsequently, Sustainable development forwards a balanced approach to life, which brings social, governmental, and economic restrictions for the sake of better future. Vivid examples of poor unsustainable development can commonly be observed like hefty financial crises due to negligent banking and governmental policies, increase in air pollution due to fossil fuel burning, pacific garbage patch due to waste dumped in the sea, deforestation, no-recycling, ecological issues due to pesticides and chemical fertilizers and etc. Poor quality of air in Urban or industrial areas develop smog that contains sulfur dioxide, carbon dioxide, nitrogen and carbon mono oxide. These toxic gases are lethal for lungs and can cause long-term respiratory issues, change in human organ functions, and also cardiovascular syndrome as well. Similarly, noise pollution of heavy traffic, industrial units, constructional activities and various machines can cause hearing impediments, sleep disorders, aggressive temperament, stress, cardiovascular syndromes and many more. Pollution of any type is due to short-term benefit and lack of long-term planning according to sustainable development. Hygiene issues due to water pollution in heavily populated areas can cause people and their future generations to suffer from numerous health issues as well. The above-mentioned issues are a result of unsustainable development, inadequate urban planning, and functioning in the recent world. However, to adopt sustainable development lifestyle efforts are required to remodel current and existing processes into sustainable processes, and consumption needs into sustainable consumption.  Ã‚  

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

Critique of Research Article Essay Essay Example for Free

Critique of Research Article Essay Essay The purpose of this essay is to recognize specific aspects of the clinical nursing research paper done by Carlee Lehna and Jack McNeil. I will define and discuss these aspects. In clinical research articles there are literature reviews that give background information as to the problem and research that was performed in the study, and why this problem needed to be studied (Burnes Grove, 2011). The literature review in this particular study explains to the reader about the contrast in health literacy of English speaking only parents and Spanish speaking only parents and what tools the researchers used to measure the parents’ health literacy of their child’s health care. The review was very thorough and understandable. The authors named a couple of different tools and how those tools measured literacy. They also explain why they chose the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults tool (TOFHLA), it was the only test that was available in English and Spanish. After reading another article there is another test called Newest Vital Sign. This test is also in English and Spanish takes less time and has only six questions. (Cornett, 2009). Using one test to measure their healt literacy is a limitation. The problem statement helps the reader identify the dilemma for the target population in the research and why it needs further exploration. Burns McNeil discuss that the lower health literacy of the parents the poorer outcomes of their children (Lehna McNeil, 2008). The purpose of this study is to measure the difference in health literacy in two groups of different language speaking parents, i. e. English and Spanish (Lehna McNeil, 2008). The relationship between the problem statement and purpose statement is that the purpose statement is the how the authors are going to find the fix for the problem. The problem statement in this article very clear that the low health literacy is directly related to poor outcomes. The purpose statement is concise and easy to comprehend. In the Lehna McNeil article, the word purpose is mentioned several times and it may make it harder for the reader to decipher the purpose statement, this is a limitation. Target population is a larger total sample group that meets a criteria (Burnes Grove, 2011). Sample is the particular group that participated in the study (Burnes Grove, 2011). The target group in this particular study meet the criteria of parents/caregivers that either only speak English or Spanish and that their children were treated at Shriners Hospital for Children in Galveston, Texas. The sample group is much smaller, they meet the criteria and participated in the tests, interviews and focus groups. These different ways that the researchers used to gather information is a strength. Two of the limitations with the sample is that they only studied parents from one hospital and the authors just specified the language as Spanish, there are many different dialects in those Spanish speaking countries that some information could be lost in translation. The five parts of the study were very easy to recognize. By dissecting this study it helped me identify and learn those 5 parts. I feel a bit more comfortable in reading research papers. This research study was very interesting because I can relate to the difficulty with trying to explain health issues with Spanish speaking families. References Burnes, N. , Grove, S. K. (2011). Understanding Nursing Research: Building an Evidence-Based Practice (5th Ed. ). Maryland Heights, MO: Elsevier. Cornett, S. (2009, Sept 30). Assessing and Addressing Health Literacy. The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, 14. http://dx. doi. org/10. 3912/OJIN. Vol14No03Man02 Lehna, C. , McNeil, J. (2008, April 2). Mixed-Method Exploration of Parents’ Health Understanding. Clinical Nursing Research, http://cnr. sagepub. com/

Monday, October 14, 2019

Length of stay in pediatric intensive care unit

Length of stay in pediatric intensive care unit 1.1 Scope of Review The following review of the past work done in the area of intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay is divided into two parts. The first part covers the studies done on the PICU length of stay while the second part delves into the literature of ICU length of stay. 1.2 Studies of Length of Stay in Pediatric Intensive Care Unit Ruttimann Pollack (1996) investigated the relationship of length of pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) stay to severity of illness and other potentially relevant factors available within the first 24 hours after admission. A median and geometric mean length of PICU stay of 2.0 and 1.9 days respectively, and the upper 95th percentile at 12 days were found. To prevent undue influence of outliers, all patients staying longer than 12 days were considered long-stay patients (4.1% of the total sample) and were excluded from the model-building process. In the LOS prediction model, variables found to be significantly associated (p Table 1.1: Log-logistic regression model for length of stay Variable Regression coefficient SE Adjusted LOS ratio 95% CI PRISM score* 0.6386 0.0407 5 1.28 1.25-1.33 10 1.63 1.54-1.74 15 1.80 1.67-1.94 20 1.98 1.82-2.16 25 1.62 1.53-1.72 30 1.29 1.25-1.33 40 1.38 1.33-1.44 50 1.06 1.06-1.07 Primary diagnoses CNS diseases -0.1682 0.0267 0.85 0.80-0.89 Neoplastic diseases 0.2324 0.0579 1.26 1.13-1.41 Drug overdoses -0.1758 0.0383 0.84 0.77-0.90 Inguinal hernia -0.3270 0.1344 0.72 0.55-0.94 Asthma -0.1135 0.0527 0.89 0.80-0.99 Pneumonia 0.2350 0.0475 1.26 1.15-1.39 CNS infections 0.4966 0.0555 1.64 1.47-1.83 Respiratory diseases ÃÆ'- PRISMà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚   0.1257 0.0579 1.67 1.49-1.87 Head trauma ÃÆ'- PRISMà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚   0.1710 0.0611 1.73 1.53-1.94 Diabetes ÃÆ'- PRISMà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚   -0.3332 0.0666 1.23 1.08-1.40 Admission conditions Postoperative 0.1267 0.0243 1.14 1.08-1.19 Inpatient 0.2358 0.0271 1.27 1.20-1.33 Previous ICU admission 0.1562 0.0521 1.17 1.06-1.29 Therapy Mechanical ventilation 0.4900 0.0258 1.63 1.55-1.72 Intercept -0.0191 0.0278 Scale 2.5602 0.0295 Log partial likelihood = -5487.2; global chi-square value = 1601.9; df = 15; p CI, Confidence interval; CNS, Central nervous system *LOS ratios computed relative to PRISM score = 0. à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  LOS ratios computed for an interaction with PRISM score = 6.42 (sample average). Source: Modified from Ruttimann Pollack (1996). In the same study, Ruttimann Pollack (1996) noted the ratio of observed to predicted LOS varied among PICUs from 0.83 to 1.25. The PICU factors associated (p Table 1.2: Effect of PICU characteristics on length of stay Variable Regression coefficient SE Adjusted LOS ratio 95% CI p* Intensivist -0.1208 0.0189 0.89 0.85-0.92 0.0001 Coordination -0.0513 0.0190 0.95 0.92-0.99 0.0071 Residents -0.0586 0.0200 0.94 0.91-0.98 0.0033 ln (PICU/hospital beds) à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚   0.0459 0.0170 1.03 1.01-1.06 0.0068 CI, Confidence interval. *2 ÃÆ'- ln (likelihood ratio) test. à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  LOS ratio and 95% CIs computed for and increase of PICU/hospital bed ratio by a factor of 2. Source: Modified from Ruttimann Pollack (1996). Development of a new LOS prediction model was necessary due to the availability of a newly updated pediatric severity-of-illness assessment system, PRISM III-24 (Pediatric risk of mortality, version III, 24-hour assessment). Ruttimann et al. (1998) have then fitted a generalized linear regression model (inverse Gaussian) to the observed LOS data with the log link function. In the new LOS prediction model, variables found to be significantly associated (p Table 1.3: Generalized linear regression model (inverse Gaussian) for length of stay (n = 9558) Variable Length of stay ratio 95% Confidence interval p Valueà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚   PRISM III-24 à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¡ à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¡ 0.0001 (PRISM III-24) °Ã‚ °2 à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¡ à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¡ 0.0001 Primary diagnoses CNS infections 1.41 1.28-1.56 0.0001 Neoplastic diseases 1.22 1.13-1.31 0.0001 Asthma 0.91 0.85-0.96 0.0045 Pneumonia 1.50 1.40-1.61 0.0001 Drug overdoses 0.74 0.70-0.79 0.0001 CV nonoperative 1.22 1.14-1.32 0.0001 CV operative 0.89 0.83-0.95 0.0006 Diabetes 0.74 0.67-0.81 0.0001 Admission specifications Postoperative 0.92 0.88-0.96 0.0004 Inpatient 1.17 1.13-1.22 0.0001 Previous ICU admission 1.26 1.15-1.38 0.0001 Therapy Mechanical ventilation 1.68 1.60-1.77 0.0001 Model intercept ( ± SEM) = 1.423  ± 0.021 days CNS, Central nervous system; CV, cardiovascular system.  °Effect of the variable after adjusting for the effects of all other variables in the model. à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Log-likelihood ratio compared with the chi-squared distribution with 1 degree of freedom. à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¡See Fig.2 (pg 82, Ruttimann et al. 1998). Model fit: Scaled deviance = 9558 (chi-square with 9543 degrees of freedom, p >0.45). Observed versus predicted length of stay, mean ( ± SEM) in: training sample (n = 9,558): 2.351( ± 0.032) versus 2.360( ± 0.011), p >0.64; test sample (n = 1,100): 2.461( ± 0.069) versus 2.419( ± 0.035), p >0.49. Source: Modified from Ruttimann et al. (1998). Ruttimann et al. (1998) have also assessed the PICU efficiency with the new LOS prediction model and validation of the assessment by an efficiency measure based on daily use of intensive care unit-specific therapies (based on the criterion whether on each day a patient used at least one therapy that is best delivered in the ICU). PICU efficiency was computed as either the ratio of the observed efficient days or the days accounted for by the predictor variables to the total care days, and the agreement was assessed by Spearmans rank correlation analysis. PICU efficiency comparisons for both the predictor-based and therapy-based methods are nearly equivalent. Ruttimann and colleagues (1998) acknowledged the advantage of predictor-based efficiency as it can be computed from admission day data only. It was of researchers utmost interest to study the extended LOSs as well. Long-stay patients (LSPs) in the PICU were later being examined by Marcin et al. (2001). As explained previously, LSPs were defined as patients having a length of stay greater than 95th percentile (>12 days). In the study, the clinical profiles and relative resource use of LSPs were determined and a prediction model was developed to identify LSPs for early quality and cost saving interventions. To create a predictive algorithm, logistic regression analysis was used to determine clinical characteristics, available within the first 24 hours after admission that were associated with LSPs. Marcin and colleagues (2001) noted that, Long-stay patients in the PICU consume a disproportionate amount of health care resources and have higher mortality rates than short-stay patients. Multivariate analysis of the study identified predictive factors of long-stay as: age Table 1.4: Significant independent variables from the logistic regression analysis Variable Odds Ratio 95% CI p Value Age 1.77 1.42-2.20 Previous ICU admission 2.18 1.52-3.11 Emergency admission 1.67 1.28-2.19 CPR before admission 0.59 0.37-0.96 0.032 Admitted from another ICU or IMU 2.28 1.13-4.58 0.020 Chronic TPN 3.09 1.39-6.92 0.006 Chronic tracheostomy 2.23 1.41-3.52 0.001 Pneumonia 2.73 2.03-3.68 Other respiratory disorder 2.33 1.64-3.32 Acquired cardiac disease 3.07 2.01-4.67 Having never been discharged from hospital 2.27 1.12-4.59 0.020 Ventilator 4.59 3.60-5.86 Intracranial catheter 2.78 1.76-4.41 PRISM III-24 score between 10 and 33 2.99 2.35-3.81 CI, confidence interval; ICU, intensive care unit; CPR, Cardiopulmonary resuscitation; IMU, intermediate care unit; TPN, total parenteral nutrition; PRISM, Pediatric Risk of Mortality. Source: Modified from Marcin et al. (2001). In a case study carried out by Kapadia et al. (2000) in a childrens hospital in the Texas Medical Center in Houston, discrete time Markov processes was applied to study the course of stay in a PICU as the patients move back and forth between the severity of illness states. To study the dynamics of the movement of patients in PICU, PRISM scores representing the intensity of illness were utilized. The study modeled the flow of patients as a discrete time Markov process. Rather than describing by a string of services and scores, the course of treatment and length of stay in the intensive care was described as a sequence of Low, Medium and High severity of illness. The resulted Markovian model appeared to fit the data well. The models were expected to provide information of how the current severity of illness is likely to change over time and how long the child is likely to stay in the PICU. The use of a Markovian approach allowed estimation of the time spent by patients in different se verity of illness states during the PICU stay, for the purposes of quality monitoring and resource allocation. 1.2 Studies of Length of Stay in Intensive Care Unit According to Gruenberg et al. (2006), institutional, medical, social and psychological factors collectively affect the length of stay (LOS) in the intensive care unit (ICU). Institutional factors include geographic location, resources, organizational structure, and leadership. In term of medical factors, specific medical interventions, specific clinical laboratory values, and the type and severity of patients illnesses were found to be related to length of stay in the ICU. Social factors such as lack of quality communication between patients families and physicians or other healthcare personnel, and conflict between patients families and hospital staff have resulted in prolonged ICU and hospital stays. Anxiety and depression experienced by a patients family members are psychological characteristics that contribute to inadequate decision making and extended ICU stays. In order to examine the impact of prolonged stay in the intensive care unit (ICU) on resource utilization, Arabi and colleagues (2002) carried out a prospective study to determine the influence of certain factors as possible predictors of prolonged stay in an adult medical/surgical ICU in a tertiary-care teaching hospital. Prolonged ICU stay was defined as length of stay >14 days. The data analyzed included the demographics and the clinical profile of each new admission. Besides, two means were used to assess severity of illness: the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score (Knaus et al., 1985, as cited in Arabi et al., 2002) and the Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS) II (Le Gall et al., 1993, as cited in Arabi et al., 2002). The study has identified predictors found to be significantly associated with prolonged ICU stay: non-elective admissions, readmissions, respiratory or trauma-related reasons for admission, and first 24-hour evidence of infection, oliguria, coagulopathy, and the need for mechanical ventilation or vasopressor therapy had significant association with prolonged ICU stay (Table 2.5 2.6). It was also found that mean APACHE II and SAPS II were slightly higher in patients with prolonged stay. Arabi et al. (2002) concluded that patients with prolonged ICU stay form a small proportion of ICU patients, yet they consume a significant share of the ICU resources. Nevertheless, the outcome of this group of patients is comparable to that of shorter stay patients. The predictors identified in the study were expected to be used in targeting this group to improve resource utilization and efficiency of ICU care. Table 1.5: Demographic and clinical profile of patients in the study group [all values shown are n (%), except where indicated otherwise] All (n = 947) ICU length of stay p value à ¢Ã¢â‚¬ °Ã‚ ¤ 14 days (n = 843) >14 days (n = 104) Age (years) ¹ 12-44 391 (41.3) 349 (41.4) 42 (40.4) NS 45-64 309 (32.6) 274 (32.5) 35 (33.7) NS à ¢Ã¢â‚¬ °Ã‚ ¥65 247 (26.1) 220 (26.1) 27 (26.0) NS Gender Male 591 (62.4) 518 (61.4) 73 (70.2) NS Female 356 (37.6) 325 (38.6) 31 (29.8) NS Type of admission Elective 169 (17.8) 164 (19.5) 5 (4.8) Non-elective 778 (82.2) 679 (80.5) 99 (95.2) Severity of illness APACHE II score (mean  ± SD) 19  ± 9 19  ± 9 21  ± 8 0.016 SAPS II score (mean  ± SD) 38  ± 20 37  ± 20 43  ± 16 0.003 Tracheostomy 113 (11.9) 52 (6.2) 61 (58.7) ICU mortality 193 (20.4) 173 (20.5) 20 (19.2) NS NS, not significant.  ¹Because of rounding, some of the percentages may not add up to 100% exactly. Source: Modified from Arabi et al. (2002). Table 1.6: Possible predictors for prolonged stay and the associated odds ratio No. of patients (%) ORs for prolonged stay p value (n = 947) OR 95% CI Non-elective admission 778 (82.8) 4.7 1.9-11.7 Readmission 79 (8.3) 2.1 1.1-3.8 0.02 Main reason for admission Surgical Trauma 171 (18.1) 2.1 1.4-3.4 Non-trauma surgical 231 (24.4) 0.3 0.1-0.5 Medical Cardiovascular 212 (22.4) 1.0 0.6-1.6 NS Respiratory 159 (16.8) 2.2 1.4-3.6 Neurologic 36 (3.8) 0.5 0.1-2.0 NS Other 138 (14.6) 0.51 0.25-1.05 NS First 24-hour data Coagulopathy 345 (36.4) 1.5 1.0-2.3 0.05

Sunday, October 13, 2019

Essay example --

Maximiliano Rubà ­n y Mauricia la Dura son para mi los dos personajes mà ¡s dinà ¡micos y fascinantes de toda la novela Fortunata y Jacinta. He elegido escribir este trabajo final sobre los sueà ±os y los ensueà ±os de los dos. Los sueà ±os dicen mucho sobre el mundo galdosiano; a travà ©s de los sueà ±os de Maximiliano y Mauricia, uno se puede entender mejor al mundo en que viven y tener una ligera sensacià ³n de lo que va a pasar mà ¡s adelante en la novela. Ver dentro de las subconciencias de los personajes revela mucho en pocas palabras. Analizarà © los significados posibles de los sueà ±os y hablar de las causas para que sueà ±an lo que sueà ±an Maximiliano y Mauricia.  ¿Quà © es un sueà ±o? Yo lo veo cà ³mo un recreo para la mente. Durante la noche el cerebro se puede estirarse y reflexionar sobre los acontecimientos del dà ­a anterior. Benito Pà ©rez Galdà ³s nos enseà ±a que dentro de su libro Fortunata y Jacinta, el sueà ±o es un reflejo de un mundo que està ¡ debajo de la superficie humana, escondido. Es un reflejo de la subconciencia. Maximiliano Rubà ­n lo llama â€Å"la inspiracià ³n poà ©tica† (Galdà ³s, Parte IV, cap. V, sec. II) mientras que el narrador de la novela describe la subconciencia cà ³mo â€Å"el inconmensurable hueco de la mente humana† (Galdà ³s, Parte II, cap. VI, sec. IX). Los sueà ±os de Fortunata y Jacinta tienen una gran importancia por varias razones. Los sueà ±os representan las manifestaciones mà ¡s fuerte del inconsciente en la novela. Lo que no està ¡ muy claro es lo que pasa dentro del inconsciente de un personaje. Podrà ­a ser que el sueà ±o es un recurso de la psique para ponderar los deseos reprimidos durante la vigilia; a lo mejor el sueà ±o intenta resolver problemas no resueltos del pasado (â€Å"La Voz Del Anima† 501). De todas maneras, està ¡ bien ejempli... ...rifà ©rico de Mauricia. Con respecto a los sueà ±os, Galdà ³s quiere proveer toda la informacià ³n necesaria del sueà ±o, mientras asegurar que el lector esta al tanto con los tejemanejes del entorno. Los personajes mà ¡s afectados por los sueà ±os son los personajes mà ¡s desesperados (Ribbans). Estos personajes, incluyendo a Maximiliano y Mauricia, son los mà ¡s afectados porque las conexiones entre sus conciencias y sus subconciencias son muy abiertas y activas. Para ellos, es fà ¡cil dejar que un sueà ±o infecta la vigilia y altera la realidad. La diversidad en el estilo de narrar y la mucha informacià ³n suplementaria proveà ­do para entender a los sueà ±os, el lector puede investigar e interpretar el mundo galdosiano de esta novela en muchà ­simas maneras distintas. Debido a la imaginacià ³n inmensa de Galdà ³s y sus personajes, los sueà ±os de Fortunata y Jacinta son divertidos e informativos.

Saturday, October 12, 2019

Stalking :: essays research papers fc

Based on a study done by Schwartz-Watts and Morgan at the American Academy of Psychology Law, they found that stalking was far more prevalent than anyone had imagined: 8% of American women and 2% of American men will be stalked in their lifetimes. That’s 1.4 million American stalking victims every year. The majority of stalkers have been in relationships with their victims, but significant percentages either never met their victims, or were just acquaintances - neighbors, friends or co-workers. I have broken down types of stalkers into three broad categories: Intimate partner stalkers, delusional stalkers and vengeful stalkers. Obviously, there is overlap. Intimate partner stalkers are typically known as the guy who "just can’t let go." These are most often men who refuse to believe that a relationship has really ended. Often, other people - even the victims - feel sorry for them. But they shouldn’t. Studies show that the vast majority of these stalkers are not sympathetic, lonely people who are still hopelessly in love, but were in fact emotionally abusive and controlling during the relationship. Many have criminal histories unrelated to stalking. Well over half of stalkers fall into this "former intimate partner" category. Delusional stalkers frequently have had little, if any, contact with their victims. They may have major mental illnesses like schizophrenia, manic-depression or erotomania. What they all have in common is some false belief that keeps them tied to their victims. In erotomania, the stalker’s delusional belief is that the victim loves him. This type of stalker actually believes that he is having a relationship with his victim, even though they might never have met. The woman stalking David Letterman, the stalker who killed actress Rebecca Schaeffer and the man who stalked Madonna are all examples of erotomanic stalkers. The final category of stalker is not lovelorn. He is the vengeful stalker. These stalkers become angry with their victims over some slight, real or imagined. Politicians, for example, get many of these types of stalkers who become angry over some piece of legislation or program the official sponsors. But, disgruntled ex-employees can also stalk, whether targeting their former bosses, co-workers or the entire company. Some of these angry stalkers are psychopaths, i.e. people without conscience or remorse. Some are delusional, (most often paranoid), and believe that they, in fact, are the victims. They all stalk to "get even." In general, for any type of stalker, the less of a relationship that actually existed prior to the stalking, the more mentally disturbed the stalker.

Friday, October 11, 2019

Benefits of Sports

Should students be involved in sports during their busy academic life? I  believe  so,  there are three  major benefits that i believe are the most important reason to start a sport: They are   Health, helps build good values, and are just all in all fun. I encourage students to take up sports. Even  though I’m a student myself and i know how busy we get from homework and test, but sports can help relieve stress and make school more fun.A report from the United Nations Inter-Agency Task force on sports for Development and Peace stated that young people can benefit from physical activity as it contributes to developing healthy bones,  efficient  heart and lung function as well as improved motor skills and cognitive function. Physical activity can help to prevent hip fractures among women and reduce the effects of  osteoporosis. Remaining physically active can enhance  functional  capacity among older people, and can help to maintain quality of life and   Independence. Sport teaches many good values that one can use in sports and their daily  life.Honesty,  disciplined  respect, and many others are just some of the values that sports teach us. A student can use these  values  in their daily  routine. Sports can help a student learn about arriving on time, setting  priorities, and to  encourage  team work. The key to creating and sustaining values based on sporting is Living Values: living values in  everything  you do, every time,  every day. Sports can be really fun and exciting. I  practice  Taekwondo and its exiting being put up  against  a bigger, faster, and stronger  opponent. It’s a very rewarding experience to see how much hard work pays of in combat and it can be applied in school.You may not see the results running and  practicing  everyday but once you get in to battle it shows, and it’s the same for school you may not see the results of  content  studying until you t ake an exam. It’s very exciting and I recommend all students to try sports it is very fun. In conclusion I believe students should start a sport since it offers many benefits Like: health benefits, good values, and it’s fun. I encourage my fellow students to join a sport It really makes the learning experience more enjoyable, and I believe it prepares us for success.

Thursday, October 10, 2019

Movement in Architecture

Motion in Architecture How can the Architectural Promenade Create Experiences Which Heighten Our Connection to Construct Environment? â€Å"I see obviously how external images influence the image that I call my organic structure: they transmit motion to it.And I besides see how this organic structure influences external images: it gives back motion to them.† – Henri Bergson Contentss Contentss Glossary Introduction Motion of Body in Space Decision Making In Movement Formulation of Movement Criteria Illustrations MentionsGlossaryMotion The act or procedure of traveling people or things from one topographic point or place to another. Architectural Promenade The experience of walking through a edifice. The complex web of thoughts which underpins Le Corbusier’s work, most specifically his belief in architecture as a signifier of induction. [ 1 ] Emanation An organized group or line of people or vehicles that move together easy as portion of a ceremonial. Parkour The activity or athletics of traveling quickly through an country, typically in an urban environment, negociating obstructions by running, jumping, and mounting.IntroductionThis paper seeks to research how, through design designers can heighten the users experience in the built environment through motion and the architectural promenade. Our organic structures are an inordinately good designed mechanism and an astoundingly complex piece of technology. It has been advanced and enhanced through development – and we are intended to travel. The environment we choose to bring forth around this chef-d'oeuvre merits the topmost imaginable degree of consideration. The manner we inhabit the reinforced environment replicates our capableness and the longing for our organic structures to travel and brood. Architecture has ever been designed with motion in head, whether it is knowing or unwilled. This thesis aims to analyze and uncover the legion ways our organic structures move within the built environment and look into how architecture and design can suit or order human motion. The focal point of my survey will be on the design of museums as this provides a great penetration into the ways worlds move and make determinations within the reinforced environment. From the public place to the bosom of the exhibition infinites, museums provide a phase for human motion within architecture.Motion of Body in SpaceHarmonizing to Robert Yudell the interaction between the sphere of our organic structures and the sphere of our home topographic points is invariably in gesture. Whether we are cognizant or inexperienced person of this procedure, our organic structures and our motions are in eternal duologue with our edifices. The critical interaction of organic structure signifier and motion with architecture deserves our careful attending as designers. [ 2 ] Motion and emanation has been cardinal to the preparation of the built environment dating as far back as antediluvian Egypt, Greece and Roman architecture. In peculiar when it comes to sacred or ritual infinites. Many of the techniques designers use in modern twenty-four hours design to advance motion day of the month back to the methods used in the yesteryear. For illustration in the Temple of Khons in ancient Egypt the usage of visible radiation, threshold and fluctuation in degrees non merely defined the infinite but besides the emanation through the infinite. Architects such as Philip Johnson and Le Corbusier have studied this emanation or promenade to make more piquant architecture in modern times. Through promotion in engineerings adult male is â€Å"moving† faster and farther than of all time before, but this motion is chiefly a inactive experience unlike the piquant architecture of Le Corbusier in early modernist times. Our organic structures are being moved or propelled in infinite instead than physically traveling ourselves. In kernel we are really sing less active motion in the horizontal and perpendicular planes than of all time before. Yudell describes this as frozen and drifting organic structures. This construct differentiates between the self- motion of a organic structure or the displaced organic structure that is moved by other agencies such as a vehicle or lift. We rely on the displaced motion of our organic structures to go greater distance but one may oppugn if we are going excessively reliant on these methods and as such going brainsick or alienated from our environments as we simply pass through infinite by mechanical agencies. The Futurist Movement is an utmost illustration of this disaffection from the universe and our experience of architecture around us. One of their visions promised entire freedom of life on an space gridded platform into which we may stop up for energy, information or alimentary demands. This scenario nevertheless embodies a clear denial of the demand for the interaction of organic structure and architecture. It provides no landmarks, no stimulation, no phases, and no Centres. [ 3 ] Changes in engineering has meant that some of these futurist thoughts have been implemented at a smaller degree. Our motion within the built environment has become progressively inactive due to ordinances for handiness and in some instances for pure convenience. It is our occupation as designers to turn to this deficiency of battle and inactive motion within the built environment by making a promenade that encourages motion and geographic expedition in our milieus.Decision Making In MovementLe Corbusierâ⠂¬â„¢s premier motivation when designing was to aid people in the procedure of â€Å"savoir habiter† , cognizing how to populate [ 4 ] and it was his sentiment that the architectural promenade would be designed to â€Å"resensitise† people to their milieus. [ 5 ] In planing in this manner buildings become a series of experiences, get downing with the attack from the street, tract or square and pulling a individual indoors and in along a series of experiences in infinite. In a manner the designer becomes a type of choreographer, making infinites which anticipate a person’s motion. It creates a duologue non merely between people and the reinforced environment but besides amongst other people. Le Corbusier strived to make infinites where people would be prompted to utilize their memory, analysis, concluding and finally formation of an grasp of his architecture, obliging them to convey their ain experience to the edifice, making something wholly new. He endeavoured to make a model in which people could populate their ain lives and do their ain determinations whilst ordering really strongly precisely what that model should be. This paradox is what makes Le Corbusier’s work so interesting. It is one of the most confusing issues of architectural pattern ; how can an architect design infinites that encourage motion without curtailing the individuals free motion within the infinite. Le Corbusier tried ( non ever successfully ) to turn to how other people may see his edifices and to underscore the message that edifices were considered as unfinished without people and their experience within. In a less formal scene in Mikkel Rugaard’s â€Å"Street Movement† in Denmark ( which originated as a Parkour preparation company ) has attempted to turn to the thought of planing for freedom of motion and look in the reinforced environment. Rugaard attempts to specify infinites, milieus and objects in the reinforced environment to do certain they become inspirational and invitational towards physical activity and motion without compromising the architectural vision and aesthetic value. Rugaard notes that planing for motion successfully is easy but what becomes more complex and challenging is the add-on of different people who are go throughing through these infinites and how the map of those non take parting in parkour additions the complexness of design. [ 6 ] The Gugenheim Museum in New York designed by Frank Lloyd Wright in 1959 is an illustration of a edifice that is clearly designed with a really controlled motion or promenade laid out within the edifice. The raging paseo guides the visitant up through the edifice go arounding through the whole exhibition infinite. There is no determination devising in this procedure but instead the visitant is led in one way ether up or down through the exhibition infinite. It is my purpose to analyze through instance surveies how motion can be achieved in a more intuitive manner instead than the forced nature of Frank Lloyd Wright’s work in the Guggenheim in New York. In a manner the controlling nature of the promenade within the Guggenheim is differs little from the control of motion within the futurist ideals. The visitant is non being engaged with the architecture but instead is being brought in a certain controlled way.Formulation of Movement CriteriaIn order to analyze how motion can be c ontrolled in a museum puting it is necessary to put up a standard by which I will analyze a figure of instance surveies. This has been chiefly determined by the work of Le Corbusier and the architectural promenade. He believed that the undertaking of designers was to react to the interior â€Å"sounding board† of the human organic structure and act upon it to originate a response in the signifier of action. [ 7 ] Analyzing the standard he used focal points on the ways in which architecture can ease this procedure and as such act as a call for motion. Believing as he did that the organic structure plays a chief portion in the soaking up of cognition Le Corbusier developed a series of techniques to incorporate this procedure. Deducing from his roof of the mouth of centripetal experiences, beat, coloring material, visible radiation and touch, he choreographed sequences of infinites that would arouse a response at the most instinctual degree. In his early work modulating lines were used to direct these distinguishable messages to the head, following this the modular adult male would lend to this project. Light and dark would add a farther degree to the stage dancing of the promenade by playing to the edifice user physiologically through the power of symbolism. I will endeavor to analyze farther how the undermentioned sensory factors play a portion in modern architecture where engineering and even the promotion of light control can play a portion in the design and stage dancing of the modern promenade.Rhythms of the BodyScaleSoundLightColoring materialCentripetal StimulationOn a basic degree Le Corbusier’s promenade consists of a series of experiences in infinite utilizing texture visible radiation, memory and associations which provoke action but there is a more intricate combination of these which needs to be examined. It is how the usage of these elements together which formulates the true promenade in his edifices. Le Corbusier’s edifices can be examined from a set group of elements of his promenade but non every edifice can be examined with respect to this expression ( threshold, sensitizing anteroom, oppugning, reorientation and apogee ) therefore I have set myself the undertaking of making my ain expression or group of elements that will help my scrutiny of motion through museum infinite from past to show. It is from analyzing these standards against current theoretical accounts of museum design will help my quest to make a more piquant and geographic expedition promoting edifice to animate people to travel and interact with their milieus instead than the somewhat displaced relationship we presently have with our environment.IllustrationsPageFigureBeginning1Cover ImageAlexander Straulino – My First Lightbox6Figure 1Produced By Writer6Figure 2Ibid6Figure 3Ibid7Figure 4My Playground – Kasparworks9Figure 5Ibid9Figure 6Flavie A.Iteration Type A( 2009 )MentionsSamuel F. Le Corbusier & A ; the Architectural Promenade. Sheffield: Birkhauser 2010 Kent C. Bloomer, Charles W. Moore, Robert J. Yudell Body Memory & A ; Architecture. New Haven and London: Yale University Press 1977 Le Corbusier. The Marseille Block. London: Harville 1953 Menin S. & A ; Samuel F. Nature & A ; Space: Aalto and Le Corbusier. London: Routledge 2003 The Parkour Architect, picture, Flow-The Pakour Kommunity, 7 October 2012, viewed 31 October 2014 & lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: //www.youtube.com/watch? v=sLWfRzgo__4 & A ; NR=1 & gt ;