Monday, September 30, 2019

Unequal Resources

What do we mean by hierarchy? Hierarchy is system or organization in which people or groups are ranked one above the other according to status or authority. 2. What do we mean by high-status people? High-status people could mean people with money that have power or people like celebrities that have power in Hollywood. 3. What do we mean by low-status people? Low-status people could be people don't know much about what is going on or don't have much say in anything that is going on around them. How do you define persuasion? Persuasion is the action or fact of persuading someone or of being persuaded to do or believe something. 5. What is the difference between persuasion and dominance? Persuasion is convincing someone to believe in something and dominance is like someone making others going along with what they believe In. 6. How does Social Dominance Theory compare to Charles Darning's theory of survival of the fittest?Survival of the fittest is all about the strongest/ smartest pers on serves as for the social dominance theory Is a theory of Intercrop relations that focuses on the maintenance and stability of group-based social hierarchies. Ranking Vases of Power Exercise on Page 217 Least effective = 1 Most effective = 6 2 3 6 Deliver positive/remove negative consequences. Mete out negative or remove positive consequences. Have a high position In the group. Model behavioral and personnel qualities that others respect. 5 Possess expertise. Possesses resources or Information. 4 P. S.Sorry I lost my paper but all the questions are answered and they are all there. Unequal Resources By synonymously 1. What do we mean by hierarchy? Someone making others going along with what they believe in. 6. How does Social Survival of the fittest is all about the strongest/ smartest person services as for the social dominance theory is a theory of intercrop relations that focuses on the Deliver positive/remove negative consequences. Have a high position in the group. Model behav ioral and personnel qualities that others respect. Possesses resources or information.

Sunday, September 29, 2019

Human Development Essay

In this paper we will discuss the life span perspective of human development. Then we will summarize three theories related to human growth and development and identify at least one influential theorist for each. Then we will identify aspects of the life span perspective. Finally we will explain how heredity and the environment influence human development. There are six lifespan perspectives on human development the life expectancy (measured at birth) of American men and women, differentiated by race. For the 2005, the latest data available, the life expectancy for men of all races is 75. 2 years and 80. 4 years for women. Life-long which is no age period dominated development. Multi-dimensional that development is about biological, cognitive, socioemotional and spiritual dimensions. Multidirectional is some aspects of development increase while other decrease. Plastic is depending on one life conditions and what development paths our body takes. Historically-embedded is development influenced by historical conditions. Multidisciplinary is psychologists, sociologists, anthropologists, neuroscientist and medical researchers all study human development and share different concerns. Contextual is the individual continually responds to and act on context. According to (Hernandez, 2008) â€Å"The lifespan perspective is about understanding that changes occur in every period of development and these changes must be looked at as a product of the culture and of the specific situation surrounding the change. † There are a lot of things that define lifespan but one perspective is life-long. Life is not dominated by one moment or period in your life. According to experts, the life span perspective of human development involves three key developmental domains (Hernandez, 2008). These are the physical domain, the cognitive domain, and the social domain. The physical domain deals with the physical changes that a person goes through. For example, height, shape changes, weight fluctuations, and puberty can all be described as changes that happen in the physical domain. Here are three theories: Freud’s psychosexual development theory, Erikson’s stages of psychosocial development and Havighurst’s developmental stage and tasks. * What influence me about Freud’s view is I believe there is some truth that in some way we all have sexual impulses repressed. But on the other hand I believe that Erikson view about we learn to be assertive and learn to be create is also true. Finally Havighurst of development tasks are based on personal independence stages. Lifespan perspective is contextual meaning â€Å"the individual continually responds to and acts on contexts, which include a person’s biological makeup, physical environment, and social, historical, and cultural contexts† (Santrock, 1999). The heredity and the environment influence human development is how researchers tend to be interested in dimensions that determined by genetics. For example, Javier has two biological daughters who share the same biological mother. Both are tall, well mannered, and musically inclined. Despite these similarities, the older child appears socially reserved and quiet, while the younger one, who was born into the same family environment, seems more outgoing. In addition, one of his children has been diagnosed with a learning disability while the other seems exceptionally well-functioning cognitively. You must understand that nature versus nurture, heredity is in your genealogy their no way to change it accept your lifestyle choices-drinking-smoking and doing drugs will affect all organs muscles and brain functions leading down the path to cancer, heart attack, stroke, emphysema, hallucinations, depression, suicidal thoughts and so on, eat healthy exercise and get a genealogy test done of your immediately family to see what if any â€Å"diseases† carry over to your blood line. Grandparents-mother and father of both and siblings-slap stepmothers and stepchildren as well as aunts and uncles-with or without children. * In this paper we discussed the life span perspective of human development. Then we summarized three theories related to human growth and development and identify at least one influential theorist for each of them. Then we identify aspects of the life span perspective. Finally we explained how heredity and the environment influence human development. * * * * * * * * * * * * * Reference 1. Bowen, J. R. (2011). Infant Social Development. Retrieved from http://www. ehow. com 2. http://social. jrank. org/pages/300/Heredity-Versus-Environment. html#ixzz1HJ4qvhaS 3. Santrock, (1999). The Lifespan perspective on Human Development. Retrieved from http://www. sasked. gov 4. Hernandez, (2008). Heredity Versus Environment-The Nature-nurture controversy exploring heredity and environment: Research methods, beyond heritability. Retrieved from http://social. jrank. org 5. : Life Expectancy at Birth by Race and Sex, 1930–2005 — Infoplease. com http://www. infoplease. com/ipa/A0005148. html#ixzz1HMEhhXPX *.

Saturday, September 28, 2019

Introduction to Organisations and Management Essay - 4

Introduction to Organisations and Management - Essay Example The concern also recognizes the presence of a union body which cares for both the administrative and operation staff. (Anglia Ruskin University, 2011).On the contrary H&M is a consultancy operating on a global framework with a huge presence in over 120 nations. The concern unlike Watsons Engine also operates based on a huge staff base of around 13,000 people. This global consulting company earns the pride of employing people reflecting specialised skills in different sectors pertaining to different infrastructural categories. H&M operating in an international scale has a large number of customers both belonging to the private and public sector. The company has a very strong and motivated organisational work culture which helps in catering to the changing needs of a diversified customer base. (Anglia Ruskin University, 2011). Organisation/structure The entire organisation is divided along separate tiers in which the total organisational task is properly divided or allocated. These org anisational layers are rendered access to the existing level of organisational resources and different levels of responsibilities are duly entrusted to fulfil the allocated tasks based on the given resources. Structural levels within the organisation are represented in the form of pyramids to reflect the flow of authority and responsibility among the stated quarters. Depending on the needs of the organization the organizational structures are uniquely fashioned like simple, functional, divisional and matrix. Organisation functioning on direct owner-employee relationship with less people is based on the simpler structure. Functional and Divisional structure focuses on creation of departments based on work specialisation. Matrix structure enhances the work specialisation concept by delegating the specialisation units under separate business heads. (Strategic Management, 2009; Murphy & Willmott, 2010, p.94). In regards to the above discussion the organisational structure of Watsons Eng ine is found to be more inclined to a more conservative sphere with less focus on innovation. Organisational structures practiced at Watsons Engine being highly dependent on hierarchical system reflect less amount of flexibility to the changes in the external environment. Furthermore the increased dependence on hierarchical system has also reduced the level of transparency in the organisation. This reduction in transparency in turn has contributed to the reduction of the productivity parameter of the employees. Flow of organisational communication in Watsons Engine generally flow from higher to lower levels of organisational hierarchy and hence also affects the motivation of the employees. Watsons Engine’s enhanced dependence on obsolete hierarchical systems only contributed in obstructing the productivity growth of the employees. On the other hand, H&M functions depending on the matrix organisation. The organisation functioning depending on the matrix organisational framewor k helps in performing complex sets of functions in an integrated and highly specialise environment. Working in an integrated framework helps the organisation to make optimum utilisation of technological and human resources. Further the organisation working

Friday, September 27, 2019

News of the World Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

News of the World - Research Paper Example The news that shocked the world though is that in the mid-2011, it was announced that News International, the new owner of the tabloid will stop publishing News of the World. This is based on the result of the controversies surrounding the data gathering process of the tabloid. Prior to the event, the company was charged of phone-hacking to be able to get information for the tabloid. The said crime used to be allegations but evidences surfaced and the company was attacked by the public. The last issue of News of the World was released on the 8th of July 2011 after more than a century of running. The owners had to make the move to stop the publication due to the fact that it cannot overcome the political and commercial attacks that can occur through the years (Robinson, Scott and Sweney). One of the main reasons for the collapse of the News of the World is the phone-hacking. The said action became controversial because it is against the ethical rules of journalism and can be considered disrespectful to private citizens. One of the events that tainted the reputation of the paper is the case of 2007 when Clive Goodman was imprisoned for phone hacking. He is the paper’s royal correspondent. But the said matter did not end there. Another serious case of phone hacking is related to British teenager Milly Dowler who was found dead. Based on these cases and the corruption within the tabloid’s structure, the News of the World had to close down (Addley). Due to the cases of phone hacking committed and made famous by the News of the World, the Editor’s Code of Practice which used to be considered sufficient to cover ethical concerns in journalism had to be amended. The tabloid had one of the newspapers with numerous achievements but in the past years, the paper turned from dedicated journalism to being limited to trends and pop culture. When new issues such as pedophile, corruption, crimes, etc. would suffice in the media, News of the World would

Thursday, September 26, 2019

Strategic management paper III (Recommendations for OTD) Essay

Strategic management paper III (Recommendations for OTD) - Essay Example Employing such people would provide manifold advantages to the company. Firstly, it would enhance the image of the organization as a sociable organization which also takes care of the society. In addition to this aspect some other benefits of employing aged and disabled individuals would include the following factors, firstly it is generally believed that aged and disabled individuals are generally more loyal towards an organization and do not resort to changing jobs frequently. This assumes considerable advantage for organizations like One Touch Direct which operates in an industry segment which has considerably high attrition rates. Employing disabled and aged individuals would help in taking care of the problems of attrition. Secondly, employing this section of population would enhance the productivity of the organization. This is because aged and retired people have considerable experience in handling job responsibilities. Moreover it has been observed that due to age and experience these individuals have a better understanding of the business process and can deliver efficient results if they are provided with suitable guidance and training support from the organization. Thirdly, these individuals have a realistic growth aspirations, this is due to the reason that they have high levels of maturity which has been incorporated in their attitudes due to the years of experience of the retired individuals. Based on their real life experiences disabled and aged individuals have higher ability to manage crisis scenarios as compared to their counterparts and peers who are normal and lower aged. Fourthly it has been observed that consumers generally handle these kinds of employees with greater affection and respect as compared to the normal employees. This would enhance the customer experience as they would admire One Touch Direct’s strategy of employing such individuals. Finally legal and legislative advantages could

Wednesday, September 25, 2019

Evaluation report of NLA and Work Based Learning Essay

Evaluation report of NLA and Work Based Learning - Essay Example I believe it is very essential and undeniable for everyone as well as for me that educational qualifications and continuous self-assessments help in grooming and developing ones perspective as well as refining his/her understanding regarding the possessed potentials when defining their career plan. Undoubtedly, this course has played a pivotal role in structuring and polishing my knowledge substantially, helping me to redefine my career goals and plans further. Overall, it guided me to have a great career ahead. In context to the above-mentioned points, the main objective of this essay is to evaluate the importance of the Negotiated Learning Agreement (NLA), contributing to my abilities and critical understanding. The essay also emphasises the value and the importance of the work base knowledge in my career. It also reflects the way the education and the career goals have changed my viewpoints towards life in the competitive job market environment as well as in the employer organisation as well. Ultimately, it can be asserted that the course has helped me to review and access my performance throughout the NLA process and during my placement process. To be noted in this regards, the work-based learning program, in lieu of the placement process has helped me to overcome many problems and issues about which I lacked previous understanding, further helping me to clear the interview mitigating the gaps between the requirements of the employer and my competencies. Nevertheless, it has helped me t o notify the gaps, which may arise in the future related to my career and take preventive measures accordingly. It also clarifies my doubt of how to develop my CV and to build a better career. I am a marketing management student. It was owing to my passion towards organisational management that I ultimately decided to select this management course. I believe that it will help me to meet the criteria that are needed to build a strong career in the field of

Tuesday, September 24, 2019

The role of procoagulant microparticles in haemostasis Essay

The role of procoagulant microparticles in haemostasis - Essay Example Procoagulant MPs mostly appear as a result of apoptosis and vascular cell activation. An increase in the level of monocyte, platelet, or endothelial-derived MPs circulating in the blood is associated with CVD risk factors and indicates poor clinical outcome. They indicate vascular cell damage and interfere with atherothrombosis by exerting effects on vascular and blood cells. Under disease conditions, cellular cross-talk is supported by circulating MPs support, which leads to vascular inflammation, leukocyte adhesion, endothelial dysfunction, and stimulation. Functional tissue factor and exposed membrane phosphatidyserine are procoagulant entities produced by circulating MPs. Platelet derived MPs (PMPs) contain anionic phospholipid PS, which makes them strongly procoagulant. The removal of MPs from the blood of normal human plasma prolongs the clotting time (Ahn, 2005). Platelet derived MPs support thrombin generation in plasma without platelets, which are important for blood clottin g. Platelets form an important substrate for coagulation and their membranes provide a surface for the formation of prothrombinase complex. This enzyme is utilized in the conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin which combines with other factors to form a stable clot (Lawrie et al, 2009). The availability of platelet MPs at the site of vessel injury contributes to the clotting process by providing a large surface membrane necessary for enzymatic process. The exposure of phosphotidyserine during thrombin generation increases enzymatic catalytic effect. The large surface formed by MPs is necessary for activating the coagulation cascade that forms the fibrin clot. Circulating MPs harbor cytoplasmic effectors or functional membrane that promotes prothrombotic responses (Ay et al, 2009). These MPs channel their procoagulant potential to the target in the presence of the appropriate counter ligands. They bind onto soluble immobilized fibrinogen forming aggregates that enhance the delivery of pr ocoagulant entities. In vitro, TF and TF-dependent procoagulant mechanism is facilitated by the interaction of monocytes and endothelial MPs. TF is a constituent protein in minute amounts that flips the endothelial procoagulant properties resulting in the initiation of a TF-driven clotting process. Blood-borne TF can be incorporated in the developing thrombus through a series of TF-dependent, CD15 and CD18, and interactions. Blood-borne TF is mainly harbored by PMPs and monocyte-derived MPs provide the enzyme after lipopolysaccharide stimulation. Polunuclear leukocytes and endothelial-derived MPs also produce blood-borne TF under drastic endothelial activation. These MPs provide the required amount of TF and circulate the enzyme, which is necessary for maintaining a hemostatic balance. MPs, selectins and TF merge into an important triad of thrombosis. The surfaces of platelet and endothelial cells contain an important adhesion molecule called P-selectin (Hugel et al, 2005). The mole cule is utilized during TF accumulation and leukocyte inclusion in the thrombus when an endothelial injury occurs. The accumulation of hematopeic cell-derived TF is similar to the MPs accumulation kinetics before leukocyte-thrombus interaction. A soluble P-selectin enhances the production of leukocyte-derived TF-MPs used to correct hemostasis. The plasma levels of microparticles increase with age, which indicates the contribution of P-selectin pathway. P-selectin pathway also favors the transfer of PF into monocyte derived

Monday, September 23, 2019

Todays Justice System Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Todays Justice System - Essay Example However, there is no denying the fact that justice also happens to be a highly subjective concept, which is often susceptible to diverse interpretations. What may seem just to a person or a group may sound unjust or partial to many other. In that context, it will be interesting to have a look into the concept of justice as per Confucius, Machiavelli and Lao-tzu, to facilitate a bit better understanding of the contemporary justice system. The Confucian concept of justice is woven around the notion of 'gong', which if roughly translated means 'impartiality' (Cleary, 2000). Hence, Confucian dogmas strongly instruct the state and the justice system to resolve and solve the social conflicts and differences without resorting to any sort or form of discrimination or partiality. According to Confucius, the overall sense of direction and moral health of any society depends on the extent to which virtue and uprightness manage to permeate the social, commercial and personal spheres of life (Cleary, 2000). Therefore, the people only tend to develop a strong affinity with propriety if there prevails a sense of justice in any society. ... Therefore, the people only tend to develop a strong affinity with propriety if there prevails a sense of justice in any society. It is understood that justice to Confucius meant absolute fairness and total absence of any sort of favoritism. Thus, in the given context, the fair and equitable distribution and allocation of national resources and opportunities of growth constitute an integral part of the Confucian concept of justice (Cleary, 2000). Confucius favored a concept of justice that distinctly favored the marginalized and weaker sections of the society and ensured their well being and safety. Contrary to Confucius, the Machiavellian concept of justice is blatantly opportunistic. Machiavelli holds that the means are always subservient to the ends (Machiavelli, 1984). Thus, the direct premise of this line of reasoning is that the state or the political authority can resort to any line of action while dispensing justice, provide the delivered verdict or conclusion aid and abets the political authority in achieving its coveted and vested aims and objectives (Machiavelli, 1984). Therefore, according to the Machiavellian notion of justice, justice does not happen to be a means to disseminate a sense of fairness in the society, but a tool to further the interests of those in power. Justice merely dwindles to being a convenient tool rather then being an exalted institution and a reliable pillar of social stability. To Machiavelli, virtue and fairness meant any thing that furthered the narrow interests of the state (Machiavelli, 1984). In the Machiavellian concept of justice, pre servation and protection of the realm takes preponderance over everything else.Lao-Tzu's concept

Sunday, September 22, 2019

Oppurtunities for Waste Minimization and Their Implementation Essay

Oppurtunities for Waste Minimization and Their Implementation - Essay Example Therefore, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has instituted its hierarchy of waste minimization ways, which include reduction, recycling, and treatment. Most organizations such as hospitals and schools aim at preserving the balance between the environment, and protecting people’s health. Also, in most organizations people must comply with environmental, safety, and health laws and regulations issued by the local, state and federal agencies. Thus, this paper will identify opportunities for waste minimization and implementation within an organization. This will include explanation and application of waste minimization methods in the National Fuel Gas Company, and structure and reasoning of the case for and against the implementation. National Fuel Gas Company is a holding company that was incorporated in 1902. It operates in four segments of business, which include utility segment, pipeline and storage, exploration and production, and energy marketing segme nt. The company operates its own natural gas treating and processing, as well as gathering pipeline facilities. Each of the four segments has its own function under different management. The utility segment operations are conducted by the national fuel gas distribution corporation, which sells and provides transportation of natural gas services. The pipeline and storage segment operations are done by the national fuel gas supply corporation, which provides transportation and storage natural gas. Moreover, the exploration and production segment is conducted by Seneca Resources Corporation, which focuses on the development of purchase of natural gas and oil reserves, while the energy marketing segment operations are done by the national fuel resources that markets natural gas. Waste minimization methods Waste minimization is considered the most effective and beneficial operating procedure. For instance, in a natural gas treating and processing plant, there are many economical and tech nical, waste minimization methods that can be used. For this reason, many oil and gas operators have discovered several waste minimization opportunities and implemented them. Thus, they are enjoying the benefits such as increased revenue, reduced operating and waste management costs, reduced regulatory compliance concerns, improved company image and public relations and reduced potential liability concerns. According to Cheremisinoff (1995), there are three key methods of waste minimization, which include source reduction also known as pollution prevention, recycling, and treatment. Source reduction is the most sought-after method of waste minimization, which reduces or eliminates the generation contaminants at the source, or release of chemical waste from the source. It involves the reduction of the impact of chemical wastes on the environment to the greatest extent. The recycling method is also a desirable approach in waste minimization in which the waste material that is used for a certain purpose is treated and reused in the same or another process. Source reduction and recycling, form the waste minimization. Treatment is the last waste minimization method. It can be conducted in laboratories through elementary neutralization, or through other processes such as chemical,

Saturday, September 21, 2019

Communication And Newspaper Essay Example for Free

Communication And Newspaper Essay Racism and sexism were a major part of the 1950s and 1960s, with very few newspapers or magazines being able to maintain neutrality in their printed word against such hate. The Watts riots of Los Angeles in the movie, Heat Wave, involved attacks of a bigoted police force against black individuals who had very little education, were living in poverty, with most of the people having no jobswith unemployment being higher here than anywhere else. Many of these individuals felt they were being prejudiced against, with only five of the actual 205 police officers involved in the riots being African-American. In the movie, the Los Angeles Times reporter was played by Robert Richardson, as white reporters were not allowed in the area, which was a reverse discrimination of the riot itself. The whole picture was about racism, poverty, desperation, and feelings of anxiety and striking out against the world with feelings of   â€Å"enough is enough.† It also is about how someone in the lead role of a intolerant and racist police chief can influence whole neighborhoods of the African Americans, leading them to feelings of hopelessness and despair, eventually leading to the Watts riot which led to even more riots across the country as people began rebelling against their treatment. The movie Crash was also portrayed in Los Angeles, and also involves racism and prejudice. If possible, in a more dramatic way it regards how people interact with each other and how they develop a first impression based on race or statement, forming feelings of prejudice. It seems as if the movie is totally about relationships and different races of people, telling how we get all messed up inside and form wrong impressions about things that maybe later on we would never consider. The role of Officer Hanson in Crash psychologically seems to continue from the raging police in Heat Wave, yet here it shows that behind the scene of their abusive personality, it shows another side of racism in a different form of view, even though it brings up more violence and maybe other things causing it. It is a step-up in the picture of how discrimination, racism, and sexism develop in societies and within individuals. It is not always a black and white scene, but has many variables involved in it. In Crash, the viewpoint changed from the reporter’s view on how something can happen like a riot of minorities, or a car hi-jacking, as portrayed to the public or world to see how something can develop from the viewpoint of the stereotyped races—eventually even seeing things from the viewpoint of the police and why they feel the way they do. The third way of thinking refers to the scene in the movie Come See The Paradise, almost as if completing the circle of prejudice and racism. The writer of Crash felt that intolerance was a collective problem that needed to be explored along with shared humanity, almost as a â€Å"gang effect.† In the movie Come See The Paradise, Jack McGurn is a union organizer in New York City that is parallel to the police in the other two movies in regard to status and position, but finds himself on the wrong side of the law, also similar to the car hi-jackers or the rioters in the previous two movies. Fleeing to Los Angeles, he becomes involved in the Asia-American world, which involves racist and sexist as the blacks or Japanese, but he is the one who is prejudiced against when he tries to marry Lily, an Asian-American woman, by her father. The state of California also is prejudiced by their relationship by refusing to marry them, which forces them to flee to Seattle where they can wed. Prior to the prejudice and rioting of the 50s and 60s, Civilian Exclusion Order No. 92† became the forced removal of all Japanese and Japanese-Americans from their homes into detention camps, with very few actually knowing where they were going or why. After WWII was over, and the Japanese Internment was actually admitting to as a wrong–doing by the United States, the Civil Liberties Act of 1988 was passed to make sure that the Japanese Americans were repaid for being locked up like criminals, during a time when prejudice and fear took away the rights of our citizens because they were of another nationality involved in a wrong-doing. This was a time when citizens of the United States lost their rights because of who their race was against the power of the United States. They literally had to stand in-line to toilet, to eat, were told when to go to bed, etc.—meanwhile losing their homes, jobs and many family members. Needless to say, their dignity and pride were torn away because they were Japanese, not because of what they did wrong. Similar to the African-American racist riots in the 1960s, with many of the blacks forced into jail and torn away from their homes because they were black, the Japanese were treated just as bad. The African-Americans targeted were jobless, homeless, and drifting throughout life—which were automatic red flags for white police to pick them up. During the Japanese Internment, just being Japanese was an automatic red flag to be put in detention camps during WWII. With about 120,000 of these Japanese-Americans being forced into the camps, it was held in little regard that 2/3 of them were actually American citizens, and had rights under our Constitution, even though they were a minority group. They simply were unlucky enough to be Japanese during a time when the bombing of Pearl Harbor occurred, and they became the focus of the United State’s hate and prejudice. Living in the camps for three years under armed guards, this became a shameful period for our country when we had the audacity to treat our own people this way when they had done nothing wrong other than become a victimized race.   At one time, the Constitution of the United States actually protected the rights of our citizens, but the perfect union was not perfect during this WWII period or even later on, as the minority groups became a separate entity during the WWII as opposed to being a citizen of respect, as did the African-Americans during a later period, and is to this day. In my opinion, the similarity of the Japanese Internment period and the rioting of the 50s and 60s have changed very little, with one group locked up in detention camps and the other in prison. Both groups are imprisoned more due to race and color, by ignorant and bigoted individuals of authority who choose to separate themselves from their victims as beings of superiority. Very few looked at their victims and ask, â€Å"what kind of life did they lead before this moment, and what led to this?† and â€Å"do they consider themselves as criminals and doing wrong, because they were born Japanese or Black?†Ã‚   And did any of the answers justify the actions of their jailers? Race and racism is part of the United States and has very little to do with ethics or morality of the human race. Do we have room for a neighbor of another nationality? No—at the present time due to 9/11 the same thing is happening. How many people who are of the same race as the terrorist groups, are being punished by the United States and its citizen, being questioned in detention camps year after year, and with torturous techniques labeled as acceptable by our President? How different is this from the Japanese Internment period, or the locking up and beating of the African-American people simply because they were overly populated, living in extreme poverty, or uneducated? It is not†¦and we repeat history again and again, never learning compassion or empathy, which is why we are so popular with third world countries that are uneducated, poverty stricken, and over-populated—and who we are 100% prejudiced against.    Bibilography There needs to be the information here of the newspaper coverage, â€Å"the Readings,, of the Japanese-American Intemment during WW2 and the civil Rights movement of the late 1950`s,† which I do not have.

Friday, September 20, 2019

Social Housing Provision Changes Since 1980

Social Housing Provision Changes Since 1980 Changes in the Organisation and Provision of Social Housing Since 1980 Abstract Did the Housing Act of 1980, which granted tenants the right to buy council property, along with other housing policy geared towards a neo-liberal attitude to economics and the housing market, such as the stock transfer from local authorities to housing associations, the direct payment of housing benefit into tenants accounts and rent increases due to deregulation eventually lead to increased social polarisation between rich and poor and, in particular, homelessness in urban environments? If so, how did this happen and what were the implications of this policy on the present housing climate? Introduction to Problem The Housing Act of 1980 was a flagship policy by the newly elected Conservative government. It allowed five million tenants the right to buy their council house from the local authority at a reduced rate. This opportunity to buy was extended further in years to come, and was used primarily as a means to reduce the amount of council owned housing in favour of a number of other economic models more conducive to the right wing Conservative party ideology. The central principles of the right to buy policy, intended to reduce the amount of publicly owned housing stock, was eventually extended to include initiatives for councils to voluntarily give up their hold on their housing property. This included the allowance of private landlord ownership, the selling of council property though voluntary transfers, and also continued into present Blairite policy with the Arms Length Management Association. While the 1980 Housing Act provided revenue for run down council estates and their tenants, an d also allowed working-class tenants an opportunity to get onto the property ladder, it also contributed to fuelling a growing minority of underclass citizens, who were deprived of the council housing stock on which they were previously reliant, and were subsequently forced into a cycle of unemployment and homelessness. Although housing stock was overinflated in comparison to other capitalist countries in the 1980s, and the Housing Act was initially beneficial in many ways to the owner of the housing association. Other policies that directly affected housing stock also reflected this trend towards neo-liberalism and a policy of equal responsibility, whether the citizen was rich or poor. These policies include the stock transfer from local authorities to housing associations, rent increases due to the deregulation of the housing sector and the payment of housing benefit directly into a tenants bank account rather than to the landlord. This resulted in an increase in homelessness and social polarisation between the rich and poor. Literature Review A great deal of literature has been written on how Thatcherism has affected British housing and the effects that this had on the development of homelessness. The British Political Process: An Introduction (Wright, 2000, pp. 30-3), along with Jean Conways Housing Policy (2000) offer a good general overview of the policies forwarded and their effects this had on the power of local councils, as well as an analysis of their motivations for instigating these privatisation policies. Wright includes some details on how the Housing Acts tended to profit smaller, richer rural councils to the detrement of poorer communities, and both books go into detail about the 1988 and 1989 Housing Acts, the latter of which forced council rents up, which meant that they were unable to fund any major repairs or new building on their housing stock. Anne Power (1993) in Hovels to High Rise stresses that the right to buy polarised the market because it left behind those who aspired to buying their council hous e, but couldnt afford it. Similarly, Andy Thornley (1992) in The Crisis of London comments that, despite the intentions for right to buy to raise revenues to fund the regeneration of squalid and neglected housing estates, very little money was actually raised to reinvest in council housing because of the restrictions in place on capital receipts (p. 15). This, coupled with the deregulation of the private rented sector of the housing market in the Housing Act of 1988, led to a substantial increase of the price of rental accommodation and an increased inability for people on lower incomes to pay their housing associated costs (pp. 10-24). Tim Blackman (1995) in Urban Policy in Practice also comments that because the better parts of Britains publicly owned housing stock has been sold off, many of Britains remaining council estates have effectively become welfare ghettos (p. 153), and rife with drugs, poverty and squalid housing. Keith Dowding and Desmond Kings Rooflessness in London (Policy Studies Journal, Vol. 28, 2000) focuses on the difficulty of getting a coherent study of homelessness because of the ambiguity of the terminology homelessness which, in British law, excludes almost everybody. They argue the problem with the term intentionally homeless, a term used in the 1977 Housing (Homeless Persons) Act. This concept of intentionally homeless is used to varying degree of exactitude by different councils. Johnston Birchall (1992) comments how this varies wildly from council to council (p. 142). David Robertson (1998, p. 14) comments how this judicial discretion is often used to deliberately introduce ambiguity into policy and law, allowing for councils to absolve their obligation to house the homeless. Alison Ravetz (2001, p. 199-204) argues further that the extreme right agenda of Conservative policy combined with the 1977 Housing Act, which changed the way housing was allocated based on priority, ensu red that the priority homeless began to usurp ordinary council house waiting lists. Paradoxically, because these people were in themselves labelled as a priority for councils, potential tenants would become homeless simply in order to qualify for housing. As the number of publicly owned council houses decreased, this increased the numbers of homeless people in Britain at the time. Loveland (1995) in Housing Homeless Persons argues that the right to buy also degraded the remaining housing stock, as the properties sold tended to be in more desirable areas, and also, even at a discounted rate, only the more affluent tenants could afford to buy (p. 35). MacEwan (1991) in Housing, Race and Law mentions that the incidence of building society repossessions increased in districts responsible for Housing (Homeless Persons) provisions from 218 in 1979 to 748 in 1987, half of which were former council houses bought under the right to buy. The effects of the various Housing Acts passed by the C onservative Government on the elusive statistic of homelessness is variable. Tim Blackman in Urban Policy in Practice comments on the GNI (Generalised Needs Index), which is used to assist councils in allocating funds to housing stock (p. 97). Methodology The problem of homelessness in Britain is twofold. First, it has been very difficult to statistically measure homelessness. Many homeless people are disillusioned and unaware of their rights to apply for housing. Also, the 1977 Housing (Homeless Persons) Act uses the problematic statement of intentionally homeless which can be used in many different guises. Thus, this study of the effects of homelessness in Britain will have to take this into account, and the wildly varying statistics on homelessness testify this difficulty. However, it is safe to assume that the housing policy has led to an increased number of homeless people in Britain. This dissertation will look at the existing literature on homelessness in the 1980s, of which a great deal has been written. Secondly, the problem with homelessness and the underclass in general is that they occupy a class on the fringes of society and therefore, are not easily put into traditional catgories of class or structure. In order to eschew these difficulties with information presently available, it may be apt to conduct an independent study of homelessness, via the means of a questionnaire. This could either target the street homeless, the advantage of this method being that the questionnaire would be more quickly implemented, or else a random cross-section of society. The advantages of this method would be that it would take into account the innate elusiveness of the homeless section of society. Conclusions/Implications Thatcherism and right wing policy has led to a minorty of underclass people. Due to the strict enforcement of Thatcherite and neo-liberal housing policy that has degraded council housing stock, deregulated private sector rental markets and sold off much of the higher quality housing stock and led to a ghettoisation of many more run-down council estates, especially in urban areas of Britain. This dissertation will look primarily at the effects this has on generating an underclass of homelessness. The implications of this study will be to chart how the implementation of right wing housing policy has generated and exacerbated the continued dependency of the underclass. Bibliography Birchall, J., Housing Policy in the 1990s, (London: Routledge, 2000) Blackman, T., Urban Theory in Practice, (London: Routledge, 1995) Burrows, R., Please, N., Quilgars, D., Homelessness and Social Policy, (London: Routledge, 1997) Conway, J., Housing Policy, (London: Gildredge, 2000) Dowding, K., King, D., Rooflessness in London from Policy Studies Journal, Vol. 28, 2000 Loveland, I., Housing Homeless Persons: Administrative Law and the Administrative Process, (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995) MacEwan, M., Housing, Race and Law, (London: Routledge, 1991) Ravetz, A., Council Housing and Culture, (London: Routledge, 2001) Robertson, D., Judicial Discretion in the House of Lords, (London: Clarendon Press, 1990) Thornley, A., The Crisis of London, (London: Routledge, 1992) Wright, T., The British Political Process, (London: Routledge, 2000)

Thursday, September 19, 2019

Human Rights :: American History, Racial Relations

Symbolic interactionist perspective for race, ethnicity, and immigration leans toward social interactions. Hispanic racial conflict is becoming more common than white and black racism in America. Culture is one bias Americans tend to stamp on the Hispanic culture and labeling them all as Mexicans. Hispanic racial conflict and symbolic interactionist perspective is viewed as stereotyping and social racisms between different ethnicities. Hispanic immigrants move to America for work or education purposes in order to better their lifestyles. Most Hispanics who live in Mexico are living in poverty stricken environments. They grow up with family cultures and are expected to cross over the border to provide for their families. The will to come to America is for survival purposes for their selves and families back in Mexico. Most Americans are not very welcoming when it comes to Hispanic origins. Jones (1991) writes, â€Å"The fact that Hispanics and Whites are distributed among different social roles, with Hispanics as a group occupying lower positions than those of Whites in the status of hierarchy, may lead to inference regarding differences in personal attributes† (pg,2). Hispanics living in America are usually considered poor and live in lower class neighborhoods. Immigrants (especially illegal immigrants) work jobs they can get hired at usually being low paying jobs. Americans allow â€Å"under the table† wages so they can greedily under pay Hispanics and people with no education. In America it is against the law to pay below minimum wage ($7.25 p/hr) to accredited workers. Some owners of farms, construction work, and meat factories pay illegal immigrants low wages (probably like $5 or $6 an hour) under the table in order to keep more profit for themselves. Hispanics come from a different cultural environment than Americans and can only find low payi ng, dangerously polluted, and physically hard jobs. Mooney, Knox, and Schacht (2011) write, â€Å"But many others cannot overcome the social disadvantages associated with their minority status and become victims of a cycle of poverty† (pg. 352). The environments Hispanics work in could influence them to feel socially incapable of finding better work. Leaving them stuck in lower class deceptions of Hispanic roles in society. Jones (1991) writes, â€Å"This approach follows Cantor and Mischel’s (1979) analysis that social role is a more basic level of categorization than ethnicity because social role maximizes the richness, vividness, and distinctiveness of perceptions of people† (pg.

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

Is Alcohol Harmful To Our Life? :: essays research papers

So much information about adverse effects of alcohol is known. Yet, a large number of people condone what is known to them. Overlooking the negative effects of alcohol can turn the alcohol into a deadly weapon. Alcohol can cause deaths, diseases, and family problems. Alcohol can end your life in a matter of a second. According to,  ¡Ã‚ ° Alcoholism: New Insights on Old Problem, ¡Ã‚ ± more than 100,000 Americans die from alcohol related causes (1). In fact, alcohol related deaths are five times greater than the number killed by all illicit drugs combined. When a person imbibe an alcohol, he or she becomes disoriented. When people drive under this condition, they expose themselves to a great danger. In addition, women become more easily intoxicated from alcohol than men more (2). In result, women get themselves killed from an alcohol than males. Alcohol can also cause many diseases. When you drink too much of an alcohol, you get hallucinations and memory losses. Alcohol specifically affects the control centers of the brain (Valiant 337). If people do not get help for alcoholism, the condition could be debilitated. It could eventually lead to Korsakoff ¡Ã‚ ¯s syndrome of which symptoms would be mental confusion, hallucinations, and paralysis of hands and feet (Blum 337). This disease can get worse than they already have. Finally, alcohol can lead to poor family relationship.  ¡Ã‚ °Alcohol and Family ¡Ã‚ ± states that American research found that 49% of child abusers were drinking of the time of the offense and 34% were heavy drinkers (1). Alcoholics tend to abuse children just to make themselves feel better. In 1997, Institute of Alcohol Studies estimated that there are likely to be one million children in Britain living with a parent whose drinking has reached harmful levels (2). These innocent children get beaten everyday without knowing what is going on. There are many other things that have not been mentioned. There are more diseases caused by the alcohol which we still do not know today. The death rate on an alcohol is climbing every day.

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

Thursday Night :: essays research papers

Thursday Night When I first started college, fall two thousand two, I was not really much of a partier. I would stay in most nights, talking to friends online, or visiting someone I knew on campus. All of this changed though, one Thursday during my second semester. I was in my last class for the day, chemistry laboratory. My friend Laura, who was also in the class had been trying to convince me to go to a party with her all semester. I, all semester, had been making excuses to not go. This day though, she finally convinced me by exclaiming, "But SueEllen, it's the last party of the semester!" I succumbed to her persuasiveness and went back to my dorm to prepare. My room-mate, Melissa, was bubbling with excitement when I told her the plans for the night. So we both started getting ready. I changed into the only pair of flares I owned, and a pink tank top. I had Melissa iron my hair for me, so I could wear it down, which is something that I don't usually do. The phone rang, and it was Laura. She was outside waiting for us, it was time to go. We arrived at the hosts apartment, and the feeling that you get when you go down a steep descent in a roller coaster quickly disappeared when we were introduced to everyone there. It was a very pleasant atmosphere, partly because the people were friendly, and partly because almost everyone was slightly, if not entirely intoxicated. At some point during the night, a commotion arose as someone walked through the door into the living room. I looked up, and everyone was yelling, "Rivers!". I had seen the kid around campus before, longish black hair worn under a baseball hat, blue eyes, and a lip ring. He was cute, but whenever I had seen him, he seemed kind of withdrawn and had an angry look on his face. Everyone settled back down a moment later, and commenced socializing and drinking. A couple of hours later, I was fairly inebriated, and there weren't that many people left at the party. Everyone had gone home to get some sleep. I was fairly tired myself, and almost started to nod off while I was sitting on the couch. I woke up a little though, and started a conversation with the person sitting next to me. I don't remember exactly what we talked about, but I'm sure it was the usual introductory conversation about what bands we listened to and what classes we were taking.

Monday, September 16, 2019

Bob Marley Essay

In a time of political, economic, and social unrest, a new way of protest was beginning to emerge from Jamaica in the form of reggae music. It was 1963 when a young man from Jamaica by the name of Robert Nesta Marley, better known as â€Å"Bob Marley†, formed a band called The Wailers, who would undoubtedly become one of the only reggae bands to rise up from the oppression of the third world country. The country of Jamaica had just gained independence from the U.K. in 1962, but was anything but a free nation. Those in power chose to exploit the country’s few main exports, primarily bauxite, a mineral used in the process of manufacturing aluminum. The first ten years of Jamaican independence saw considerable economic growth, but these gains were held back from the country’s urban poor. From his book, Reggae, Rastafari, and the Rhetoric of Social Control, Stephen A. King writes, â€Å"After independence, the Jamaican Labor Party’s â€Å"Five Year Plan† did not produce economic prosperity but, instead, even greater inequity of living conditions† (47). King quotes Adam Kuper, â€Å"As the Jamaican Labor Party encouraged foreign countries to invest in and expand Jamaica’s manufacturing and bauxite industries, the traditional pursuits of agriculture, forestry, and fishing dropped to a low of 10 percent of Jamaica’s gross domestic product in 1968 (47). Marley chose to join the Rastafarian movement, a religious program that was a prominent group in Jamaica. The Rastafarian faith helped to fuel Marley’s purpose in music, which was to empower and inspire those who were being kept down by the nation’s wealthier class. A small rural village called Nine Miles located in the parish of Sainte Ann is where Bob Marley was born. Marley lived with his grandparents in the community of Sainte Anne, people who followed traditions they had learned from their early African ancestors. These customs included storytel ling which would be one of Marley’s signature qualities during his songwriting career. When Marley was a teenager, his mother decided to take him away from Sainte Anne, and moved him to Jamaica’s capital Kingston in the vicinity of Trench Town. This would be where Marley would begin to embark on his musical journey. Like most urban Jamaican cities, Trench Town was poor and all of its inhabitants including the teenage Marley lived in poverty. During this time Marley learned how to defend himself against the rough town locals, and instead of following them Marley decided to pay closer attention to music. As one author writes,  Ã¢â‚¬Å"Despite the poverty, despair and various unsavory activities that sustained some ghetto dwellers, Trench Town was also a culturally rich community where Bob Marley’s abundant musical talents were nurtured. A lifelong source of inspiration, Bob immortalized Trench Town in his songs â€Å"No Woman No Cry† (1974), â€Å"Trench Town Rock† (1975) and â€Å"Trench Town†, the latter released posthumously in 1983 † (Ruff, â€Å"Bob’s Early Life†). Marley’s beginnings in the music industry were with a form of music known as ska. Ska came about in Jamaica during the late 1950’s and early 60’s. Ska was inspired by American R&B music that could be heard through U.S. radio airways on the transistor radio. Ska was a blending of America’s R&B and Jamaica’s island beat, a mixture of calypso and mento. Author Stephen A. King writes, â€Å"Perhaps ska can best be characterized as a product of creolization, borrowing heavily from black American music (jazz, gospel, and R&B), while also incorporating indigenous (mento) and African elements into its sound† (24). Many citizens of Jamaica could not afford radios to listen to music or keep up on any news reports coming from the island. So the Jamaican sound systems, mobile devices such as vans or musical equipment on wheels, would be used to host dances, and the deejays would also use their sound systems to inform his listeners on political happenings. King states that, â€Å"As one of the few affordable social activities for the poor, the sound system brought music to places where the voice of the poor could be heard without interference by local authorities† (16). Like most of the world during this time, the black population was not allowed any political power, and many began to seek ways to resist. One of the methods used as a means to passively fight back against the imbalance was the Rastafarian religion. The Rastafarian religion was born early in the twentieth century, but its roots date back as far as the late 1800’s when slaves felt compelled to revolt against the plantation owners on the belief that God was calling them to fight for freedom. In 1927, a man named Marcus Garvey brought forth to Jamaicans the basis of the Rastafarian religion, which was to look to Africa for the crowning of a king. This would be a sign for Jamaica that freedom is near. From Africana, the Encyclopedia of the African and the African-American Experience, author Roanne Edwards quotes Garvey: â€Å"Look to Africa for the crowning of a king to know that your redemption is nigh† (Edwards 1592). In 1930 Ras Tafari was crowned emperor of Ethiopia and  baptized with the name Haile Selassie. From that moment on the Rastafarians of Jamaica would recognize the king of Ethiopia as the livi ng messiah. The religion of Rastafarianism was meant to empower Jamaica’s black population by reflecting heavily on African heritage and believed that the western society was today’s kingdom of Babylon, a corrupt city that profited from the oppressed. Part of the Rastafarian faith was to grow dreadlocks, this would become one of Marley’s signature features, but Marley was not following any trends, his purpose for wearing his hair in dreadlocks had deeper meaning than mere fashion. As quoted from Rolling Stone, â€Å"Until Babylon fell, according to one legend; the Rastas would not cut their hair. They grew it long in a fearsome appearance called dreadlocks† (Gilmore 5). Another element from the Rastafarian Movement was the use of marijuana to create a deeper connection with Selassie. Marley used marijuana as a creative outlet in songwriting and Marley, along with many Rasta musicians, followed the ritual of smoking marijuana or â€Å"ganja† for thi s spiritual experience. Marley’s songs came from a deep spiritual determination, to spread the message of the Rastafarian faith and to fight against those who sought to put down the poor and less fortunate of the world. According to author Rex Ruff, â€Å"Bob Marley reaffirms his adherence to Rastafari on â€Å"Forever Loving Jah† from â€Å"Uprising† the final album released during his lifetime. â€Å"Uprising† features the acoustic â€Å"Redemption Song† which implores the listener: â€Å"emancipate yourselves from mental slavery none but ourselves can free our mind†, reiterating the self-empowering convictions that Rastafarian tenets have sought to establish† (Bob and Rastafarian Beliefs). The poor of Jamaica were subject to deprivation because of the decisions that were being made by the political parties put in place after Jamaica had become a free nation. On one hand, there was the Peoples National Party, led by Michael Manley, who fought for constituti onal rights, and on the other hand, there was the Jamaican Labor Party, led by Edward Seaga, who desired to put Jamaica’s capital interests abroad before the welfare of the nation. Both the People’s National Party and the Jamaican Labor Party were primarily run by white members and Marley took neither side, but was said to have small favor towards Michael Manley’s People’s National Party. In 1976 the December elections were drawing near and violent protests were taking over the streets of Kingston. Marley had become such a prominent idol for  Jamaican citizens and the People’s National Party thought a concert performed by Marley would help calm the city during the election. Marley agreed to perform with his band The Wailers at the Smile Jamaica concert. Although Marley had expressed political neutrality, some believed that Marley had favor for Michael Manley’s side. During rehearsal, just two days before the concert, Marley and some members of his band were shot at. No one involved in the shooting were killed, but both Marley and his manager at the time suffered injuries. Marley went on to perform at the Smile Jamaica concert to keep the peace, but fled the country immediately after the show ended. After the Smile Jamaica concert Marley performed again at the One Love Peace concert where he persuaded Michael Manley and Edward Seaga up on the stage to shake hands. This concert symbolized Marley’s true desire for peace and harmony between the political parties of Jamaica’s new government. As Gilmore writes, â€Å"On April 22nd, at the One Love Peace Concert, Marley managed to coax both Michael Manley and Edward Saga onstage with him and held their hands together with his in a gesture of coexistence† (Gilmor e 9). Marley died of cancer at the young age of 36, but his music is still alive and reaches hundreds of people every single day. One of the things that made Marley’s music so effective was his ability to speak an intense message through a creative melody. From Rolling Stone, â€Å"He was a superb melody writer, and his songs’ insinuating pop hooks pull the listener into the realities Marley was describing† (Gillmore 12). Although much of the Marley legacy lives on in America as a mere trend, one who chooses to look deeper into his message will feel the power Marley had intended through his poetry that was meant for an oppressed nation.

Sunday, September 15, 2019

Indian Art in the Mughal Era

The Musicals introduced many new things to Indian culture, one being monumental tomb architecture such as the world-famous Tag-Mall. Hindus and Buddhist always cremated their dead so burial was a new custom all together. Along with this came the written word of sacred manuscript text In the form of decorative calligraphy. Beautiful Arabic passages from the Quern are Inscribed throughout the Tag-Mall. A very interesting way in which Hinduism and Islam were reconciled in McHugh India was through religious art, particularly in the form of the classic Indian epic, ‘The Ramadan'.The Ramadan' tells the story of the great prince/god, Ram, who is actually and incarnation of Vishnu, and his quest to save his beautiful wife, Sits, from the terrifying demon-king, Raven. During this time, The Ramadan' was depicted by both the Hindu Ragouts and the Islamic Musicals, which shows the adaptability of The Ramadan', of which there were in fact many different versions. The Musicals produced a ver sion of ‘The Ramadan' in 1600 and the Ragouts produced theirs in 1720. The McHugh King, Kafka, had a Persian translation of The Ramadan' created which is known as ‘The Freer Ramadan'.The Ragout style of art depicting ‘The Ramadan' was more of a traditional Indian style and used large areas of sold, bright colors with more simple and less realistic looking figures and objects. The McHugh style used to depict The Ramadan' was obviously heavily influenced by traditional Islamic art and was softer and more naturalistic. Over time more versions of ‘The Ramadan' came to be, although, beginning in the sass's the McHugh Empire is declining and no longer values Hindu texts like The Ramadan' as it had before. Nevertheless, the ‘Siege of Lankan' series of The Ramadan' was commissioned by the Ragout ruler, Dally Sings, In 1725.I find this Interesting because Hinduism and Islam are two religions and belief systems that are so fundamentally different from each other, and yet they are reconciled here In the form of art. It is very interesting and somewhat surprising that the Islamic rulers would be so accepting of Hindu texts and culture. ‘Tale of two Remnants Indian art in the McHugh Era with this came the written word of sacred manuscript text in the form of decorative calligraphy. Beautiful Arabic passages from the Curran are inscribed throughout the the terrifying demon-king, Raven.During this time, ‘The Ramadan' was depicted The Ramadan', of which there were in fact many different versions. The Musicals 1720. The McHugh King, Kafka, had a Persian translation of ‘The Ramadan' created looking figures and objects. The McHugh style used to depict ‘The Ramadan' was texts like ‘The Ramadan' as it had before. Nevertheless, the ‘Siege of Lankan' series of ‘The Ramadan' was commissioned by the Ragout ruler, Dalai Sings, in 1725. I find this interesting because Hinduism and Islam are two religions and belief systems that are so fundamentally different from each other, and yet they are reconciled here in the

Philosophy of Health Education

The world that we know today has come a long way since the 1900’s. If we think about the number of philosophers and psychologists that have made discoveries and hypothesis about the things around them in connection with their ideals, principals and values, we can all clearly explain that the world is ever changing as a result of holistic approaches and expression of intelligence. With this being said, it is with certainty that I believe in the idealism philosophy. Life is about knowledge. Life encompasses internal meaning and spiritual reality. Humans exhibit this knowledge through internal thoughts of the world around them. All humans are born with an inner-good. The inner good can take something so ordinary and boring and turn it into spectacular ideals. In life, it is important to hold values, education, spirituality and creativity in the highest regard. The most valuable of these characteristics is that of education and spirituality. Holding these two characteristics of utmost importance can enable in human being to think outside the box of life itself and make all things possible. With education, one can learn and collectively approach life with understanding and competence. With spirituality, one can connect themselves with something with bigger meaning and create values. I believe that seeing everything in this world as something more than what it is in plain sight creates an attitude and understanding that is so powerful and meaningful that nothing can stop you. I believe that knowledge is the most powerful weapon in the world. Holding this near and dear to my heart I believe that anything is possible and there is nothing or no one that can stop you from learning and believing. The purpose of life is to gain knowledge and turn that knowledge into something extraordinary. It is about letting our minds take control and create something new. Life is meant to be about discovery and meaningful experiences especially with the people around us. In relation to my personal philosophy of life, health is very similar. Dictionary. com defines health as, â€Å"the general condition of the body or mind with reference to soundness and vigor: good health; poor health†. In my own words and thoughts, I think a large portion of health encompasses a certain emphasis on the mind and well being as a result of good mental health. This is all made possible though health education. However, health education does have to include all dimensions of wellness; emotional, occupational, physical, spiritual, intellectual and social. With this knowledge of health and utilizing all six dimensions of wellness each individual can successfully place their self on the wellness continuum. The wellness continuum is very simple. When you have signs or symptoms of bad health, you are placed on the side of bad health with a treatment plan. However, if you are aware of your health, continue your education on your health and look forward to growth, you are placed on the good health side. It all begins with health education; a learning opportunity to see the dangers one can face that can negatively affect their health and the positive choices one can make that can prolong their life expectancy. The purpose of health is self promotion, well-being. Health is a life of knowledge, spiritual and social connections intertwined with well being that creates a long, prosperous journey. Health education in my own words is the knowledge about personal well-being, physically, mentally and socially that encompasses a number of philosophies to truly exhibit understanding. The predominate health education philosophies are behavior change, cognitive-based, decision-making, freeing and functioning and social change. All five of these philosophies should closely be tied into health education. Wikipedia defines health education as â€Å"the profession of educating people about health. [1] Areas within this profession encompass environmental health, physical health, social health, emotional health, intellectual health, and spiritual health. 2] It can be defined as the principle by which individuals and groups of people learn to behave in a manner conducive to the promotion, maintenance, or restoration of health†. Being an idealist, with an emphasis on knowledge and the mind, I think health education is of major importance. Giving people the knowledge about good health, best practices and an understanding of why it is so important to take care of ourselves is of significant importance. With this knowledge of health education, people are able to ration ally think about the choices they make that can affect their health, good or bad. The benefits of health education are endless. People living longer, healthier, happier lives are just one of many benefits of health education. In my mind, especially as an idealist, there are no limitations to health education. Our minds are endless when it comes to creativity and with that being said; there is nothing that cannot be solved using a little creativity and healthy thinking power. However, this is only possible when we carry out all aspects of health education, from understanding and teaching the back lying hilosophies, to the predominate health education philosophies and the dimensions of wellness and everything they encompass can this take place. When society meets the ongoing goals and objectives facing health issues now and creates new goals and objectives, we know that we are achieving positive health education. Health education is ever changing and new health issues are always arising; it is overcoming these issues and setting out a template to take on the next is sues that keep our society moving in the right direction towards positive health. The purpose of health education is to promote positive life experiences, touching all dimensions of wellness. Health education creates healthy people who in return create healthy communities that stand together and fight for healthier lifestyles. A person is well educated if health education when they can describe what health is by notion of philosophies and all aspects of life that health effects. This person can also describe current health issues and can create a solution to help fix the heath issues. References Cohen, LeoNora M. 1999). Section III- Philosophical Perspectives in Education. OSU- School of Education, Section II.Retrieved from http://oregonstate. edu/instruct/ed416/ PP2. html Six Dimensions of Wellness Model (2011). National Wellness Institute.Retrieved from http://www. nationalwellness. org/index. php? id_tier=2&id_c=25 Works Cited Health Education. (2011). WikipediaRetrieved from http://en. wikipedia. org /wiki/Health_education Health. (2011). Dictionary. com. Retr ieved from http://dictionary. reference. com/browse/health

Saturday, September 14, 2019

Marx and Carnegie Essay

For centuries, many philosophers have discussed the issue of class struggle. Karl Marx and Andrew Carnegie both developed theories of the unequal distribution of wealth a long time ago; however the only Carnegie’s ideology could apply to American society today. In â€Å"The Communist Manifesto†, Marx first introduces the two main social classes: bourgeois (the upper class) and proletarians (the lower class or working class). He points out the revolution of industrialism has made changes of Capitalism to Communism. He suggests that the rich should redistribute property evenly because the proletarians have put a lot effort contributing in the revolution. In contrast, Carnegie analyzes in â€Å"The Gospel of Wealth†, the unequal distribution of wealth is a natural consequence of civilization. Both Marx and Carnegie present the problem within society because they want to contribute their own experiences from various views to resolve the tension between the rich and p oor efficiently. By eliminating the gap between rich and poor, Marx believes Communism should replace the economic system of Capitalism. In his perspective, he claims, â€Å"They have nothing to lose but their chains. They have a world to win. Working men of all countries, unite† (Marx 476). Because he sees the Capitalist system exploits workers who are unfairly treated, he asserts that the proletarians should become the ruling class. The principle of Communism is the ideology of collectivism. Marx states, â€Å"Communism deprives no man of the power to appropriate the products of society: all that it does is to deprive him of the power to subjugate the labor of others by means of such appropriation† (470). This means that no private property should be allowed, and no one has even a less or more power in a Communist society. Because Marx illustrates the property ownership would enhance greed, and ambition to win in the competition despite of any consequences, he concludes the more competitions are eliminated, the better people would satisfy into their work. The goal of it is to bring up an  economic more and more efficient as well as its equality. Despite the fact both Marx and Carnegie agree that people who work hard deserve to live a successful life, Carnegie insists the great solution to the issue between rich and poor is depend on the wealthy class in society. He expresses, â€Å"The best minds will thus have reached a state in the development of the race in which it is clearly thoughtful and earnest men into whose bands it flows save by using it year by year for the general good† (495). Instead of conforming to Marx’ ideology of letting the proletarians rule the society, Carnegie thought that the rich provide an important responsibilities which means to improve the better standard of living in society. Since the poor will always be among us, he has mentioned the word â€Å"best minds† to identify the rich who represent the most educated and successful group within the population. Carnegie offered the solution of having the wealthy provided institutions and education programs, so the poverty could learn how to build their own wealth and have the great social benefits. In â€Å"The Gospel of Wealth†, Carnegie also mentions in the theory of Social Darwinism, society can’t be better because the wealthy have such a great deal amount of money, but they are not thinking carefully in what and how to spend their money properly. He said it is only useful when they find a good way to use that money to help the poor’s problems. He doesnâ€℠¢t support everyone who give generously to charity because the poor are not educated enough to use the money wisely, perhaps spend it on useless frivolities. He condemns, â€Å"It were better for mankind that the millions of the rich were thrown into the sea than so spent as to encourage the slothful, the drunken, the unworthy† (494). Thus, instead of spending money on useless things, he suggests that the rich should leave their wealth for public good. He used the Cooper Institute to expand his point that the public had used this institution to have themselves better rather than using the money Cooper had donated to them. He illustrates, â€Å"Of every thousand dollars spent in so-called charity to-day, it is probable that $950 is unwisely spent; so spent, indeed, as to produce the very evils which it proposes to mitigate or cure† (494). In the Communism and Individualism, Marx and Carnegie passionately contrast against each other’s ideologies. In Marx’s perspective, the wealthy doesn’t seem to consider the effort of laborers so there is an inequality gap between two social classes. However, Carnegie strongly refuses Communism because he  believes Communism only work on theory but not in reality. He asserts that through Communism, people expect to be treated the same, so it maybe lead them to do nothing better for their lives and society. On the other hand, Carnegie explains the concept of Individualism can promote independence and enhance good communication between two separate social groups. He adds, â€Å"Not evil, but good, has come to the race from the accumulation of wealth by those who have the ability and energy that produce it† (488). It means people work hard individually can achieve good education and as well to have a better chance to develop their standard lives. Nevertheles s, Marx is also against Carnegie’s perspective. Marx proved that Communism promoted equality among individuals, creating a mutual agreement in regards to moral standards. Moreover, all different classes have the rights to trade and sell any products of manufacture to create a best standard living. Even though, Marx and Carnegie both represent the unequal distribution of wealth in capitalist societies, they discuss the tension between two social classes in different perspectives. In Marx’s ideology of Communism, he wants the proletarians ruling society while Carnegie believes the bourgeois are qualified to improve the standard of living. Carnegie also mentions that the rich must spend their wealth in appropriate way such as contribute their money wisely to public uses. Each of their ideologies propose the advantages and disadvantages in the Communism and Individualism; however, the purpose of presenting the different perspectives of Marx and Carnegie is to reducing the gap between rich and poor as well as bringing the economic equally to develop a better standard life for all social classes. Works Cited Carnegie, Andrew. â€Å"The Gospel of Wealth.† A World of Ideas: Essential Reading for College Writers. Ninth Ed. Eds. Lee A. Jacobus. Boston: Bedford/ St. Martins, 2013. 485-495. Print. Marx, Karl. â€Å"The Communist Manifesto.† A World of Ideas: Essential Reading for College Writers. Ninth Ed. Eds. Lee A. Jacobus. Boston: Bedford/ St. Martins, 2013. 456-476. Print.

Friday, September 13, 2019

HUM CAPSTONE WK9 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

HUM CAPSTONE WK9 - Essay Example g how other people practices their respective beliefs and preferences and recognized that most of the ultimate goals of these religious affiliations is the promotion of peace and the aim to attain salvation and eternal life. Why is it important to learn about other peoples beliefs and attitudes? It is therefore important to learn about other people’ beliefs and attitudes to understand the basic theoretical premise for assuming a particular behavior, a frame of mind, or an adherence to identified ideals. By learning concepts about other religions, one was more sensitive in acknowledging how religion has likewise shaped their lives and how the way they behave and interact with others seem to be influenced by their firm belief on a divine power or Supreme Being who governs peoples’ daily lives. How will you utilize this information in the future? The information learned could be useful and could be utilized in the future through manifesting an open-minded perspective in interacting and communicating with people from diverse cultural and religious orientations and in various situations and settings. I realized that most of these religions actually adhere to the ethics of reciprocity and respecting the lives of others as a way to living the right path of life and eventually attaining the ultimate purpose of one’s religion: salvation, peace, inner calmness and eternal

Thursday, September 12, 2019

Chinese Media Research Proposal Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words - 1

Chinese Media - Research Proposal Example In the endeavor to maintain their hold on the conventional media, the Chinese government has blocked the popular sites of facebook, twitter, and YouTube amongst other sites that are a platform for free expression. The Chinese people are left with the option of building their own sites that conform to the policies of their government. One of these sites is Sina Weibo. This site has been revolutionary since its inception in the year 2009. Much of its success is owed to the closure of Twitter, in China, around that year. In order to show the significance Weibo in the context of Chinese media freedom, this paper will analyze its role in reporting the high-speed train collision in Wuhan. Weibo has been instrumental in propagating social justice, as such; it has become a precipitate of government accountability that has been lacking in China. Sina Weibo has registered approximately two hundred and fifty million users to date. Chinese Weibo has the largest following in comparison to any one of the global sites operating in the world at the moment. Owing to the large Chinese population, Sina Weibo is larger than the sum of all other sites combined. Out of this, ten percent are frequent users on a daily basis. Ten percent of two hundred and fifty million is quite a considerable figure. It has become a platform of discussion of the most contagious issues pertaining to China. Most of these, however, arise from social, political and cultural issues. This is contrary to the social sites in the west. Western sites are primarily social interaction enhancing mediums. This is exemplified by the interactions on Facebook. The power of Sina Weibo is sourced from its function as a major forum for hosting public opinion. Unlike Twitter which is mainly a social networking site, its counterpart Sina Weibo mainly focuses on public opinion o f ongoing affairs. It achieves this by providing for its users a free opportunity to participate in public affairs. An avenue via which the public could voice out its concerns has been all but lacking.  Ã‚  

Wednesday, September 11, 2019

Online social enterprise Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

Online social enterprise - Essay Example This study is totally based on secondary research. Marketing strategy is a common phenomenon adopted by organizations. The major objective of this strategy is to communicate brand message to target audience. Every firm encompasses a specific brand message to be conveyed so as to drag attention of target group. There are different approaches which are effectively utilized by organizations as their marketing tools and techniques. In earlier years, focus was on traditional marketing practices but in recent years new digital concepts have been included in the system. Digital marketing approaches are inclined towards adopting advanced technologies in order to transmit required message to audience. Social media is an innovative platform incorporated by many firms. There are different aspects of social media like spreading awareness, involving target group in campaigning activities, generating funds, highlighting special elements of the brand, etc. In this study, more emphasis shall be given on analyzing the concept of social media. It is observed that social media concept differs in commercial firms in comparison to social firms. Social enterprises utilizes social media concept to generate funds and spread awareness amongst public. It is essential that charities are able to communicate its noble cause or social message to target audience. Lack of awareness at times deprives social enterprises from collecting funds. On the other hand, social media have been portrayed as a platform for conducting branding activities of commercial firms. These kinds of firms require extensive promotional activities so as to remain competitive in the industry. In this particular study, differences and similarities of using social media by charities and commercial firms shall be further elaborated. Social media in current scenario is becoming an important constituent for all organizations. Internet technology development has contributed magnificently towards accessing

Tuesday, September 10, 2019

Information Politics Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Information Politics - Essay Example It is not to say that other situations are more important than the others, rather the executor of the informational politics such as the speakers or the representors of the information could play a major role to skew the direction of the information in either way. I have got to witness more attention being given to equipment and machines that military have to their disposal over and above the people who use the equipment and suffer consequences and loss of wars. For instance, the war veterans, victims and their families are accorded least of attention despite the emotional turmoil and suffering that they undergo in their course of action and service. Instead, they are neglected and given least of attention which is not a good reverence and show to the people who get to push the nation’s military agenda in other countries and places (Ward, 2014). In brief, politics of information may hinder the organisation and society by extension from realizing and appreciating the things that truly matter in their simplest and most ordinary

Monday, September 9, 2019

Arguments against and for Reframing Labor Rights as Human Rights Assignment

Arguments against and for Reframing Labor Rights as Human Rights - Assignment Example The labor law on the other hand argues that although the Act may be helpful in filtering and filling some gaps in the framework of legal protection at the workplace, the general effect is quite limited. This is due to the narrow range of employment-related issues to which convention rights apply. In addition, the Act provides limited opportunities for direct and indirect enforcement of employees who claim to be victims of a breach by their employers (Bakan, 1997). The effect of the duty on courts to interpret legislation in a manner which gives effect to convention rights is likely to disappear through the narrow interpretation of the respective rights by the Strasbourg authorities and the equivocal nature f the rights themselves. Incorporation is not a substitute for carefully tailored legislation as it raises questions about the obligations under the international treaties in the social field like the Council of Europe’s Social Charter. The first argument for reframing labor rights as human rights is that human rights approach facilitates partnerships with human rights friends. In addition, the system works well with the inexorable internationalization of labor struggles, it allows the naming, blaming and shaming of labor abusers and it is more responsive to the current political and cultural zeitgeist as compared to the traditional labor arguments (Savage, 2009). A human rights reframing is likely to bring about authoritativeness to labor discourse that will never be achieved by trade unionists (Adams, 2008). The historical curve of labor organizations keeps on changing toward wage compression, equal pay for work of equal value as well as equal benefits bringing up the bottom at a faster pace than advancing the top. Some unions that had gone to two-tier contracts succeeded in reversing them when possible.  Ã‚  

Sunday, September 8, 2019

I want a....( something) Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

I want a....( something) - Essay Example Your dog will never go out with other dogs (or what is worse, women) unless you ask your dog about this. However, even if you ask your dog to spend a little while with somebody else, it will probably prefer to refuse. Your dog is devoted to you with all its doggy soul – nobody else in the world would be as loved as you. Your dog will never leave you at home even if his buddies are waiting for him. You are your dog’s best buddy, so what is the sense? Your dog will never tell that it wants to go fishing without you. Your dog will never be late from work and it will never drink too much alcohol. It will not spend a part of your family budget for a new car detail. You dog will love you despite the way you look. Can you imagine the reaction of your boyfriend who sees your smeared-out make-up and messy hair when you wake up? It is of no importance for your dog. Your dog will never panic if you forget to shave your legs. Your hairdo, make-up, and outfit are not important too. You do not need to spend hours in front of your mirror in order to delight the eye of your dog. Even more, a few extra kilos will not frighten your dog. It does not matter at all. This lovely creature may appreciate your inner world. It doesnt happen very often that you find someone so sensitive and emphasizing. Besides, your dog may help you keep fit. You both will enjoy going for a walk twice a day. A breath of fresh air will always keep cheerful and healthy. Finally, if after all you decide you need to find a boyfriend, your dog may be helpful. Statistics shows that men may use your dog as a reason to get acquainted with you. A man who has a dog may turn to be a worthy, adequate candidate. It is better to escape men who do not like dogs or at least cats. It is hardly possible to find any disadvantages of dogs. Many people say that dogs are better than people. It may be true. Nowadays it is hardly possible to find

Saturday, September 7, 2019

Globalization and Labor Term Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

Globalization and Labor - Term Paper Example Along with this, several other factors like the removal of restrictions and limitations over the capital flows and the trade across border, and the rapid advancement in the technology have enabled the production processes to be scattered. The number of products and services is rapidly increasing, but they are situated far away from the target markets. The production sites have become increasingly alert to the relative cost of labor across various countries. Every year, more and more people are migrating across borders, both legally and illegally. This has given boost to the process of globalization. Particularly, the labor market is becoming increasingly globalized. This matter has drawn the attention of media and policymakers towards itself, specifically in advanced economic regions. The question that is of the biggest concern from the resulting situation and that this paper aims at answering is, if the massive in-pour of labor from the underdeveloped countries into the developed co untries is damaging the employment and compensation trends in their economies? This paper will also explore the rate of growth of the labor supply across borders in the recent years and the specific channels that have played a special role in promoting the globalization of labor. These form important aspects of the aforementioned question. Increase in the supply of global labor: In order to determine how globalized labor in the contemporary age is, it is imperative that the effect of progress of such Eastern countries as India and China on the global labor supply is studied. This requires estimation of the participation of these countries’ labor force in the global market. This can be achieved by examining the ratio of export-to-GDP in these countries. The effective supply of global labor has quadrupled in the 25 years from 1980 to 2005 (IMF 162). The increase in global labor supply particularly occurred after 1990. Although most of the increase in the labor supply across the world that has occurred in the recent years pertains to the movement of workers that have not attained higher education, yet there has also been a noticeable increase in the supple of workers that have formally attained higher education. According to an estimate, the global supply of such workers has increased by 50 per cent in the past 2.5 decades (IMF 162). Advanced economies may estimate the increase in the supply of global labor merely by reviewing the increase in demand of imports, or by reviewing the trends of immigration. A comparison of countries with respect to the impact of globalization: Impacts of the labor globalization have been most significant in the European countries and the Anglo-Saxon countries. According to (New Economist), globalization has generally caused a reduction in the labor’s share in the GDP: However ...In Anglo-Saxon and smaller European countries, labour-market policies have partially offset the depressing effects of technology and globalisat ion on labour's share, mainly by shaving the tax wedge between what workers take home and what they cost to employ. In large European countries, increases in the ratio of unemployment benefits to wages have hurt labour's prospects, probably against policymakers' intentions. (New Economist). Different factors have caused the labor share to decline in the Anglo-Saxon and European countries. In Europe, the share of labor has mainly been influenced by the immigration and offshoring whereas offshoring was not

Friday, September 6, 2019

Ethical dilemma Essay Example for Free

Ethical dilemma Essay In the following, ethical dilemma has been discussed and identified from the given case study. The background for the ethical dilemma has been explained. How the consultant has handled the situation of ethical dilemma and how a learner would have handled it differently, has been given below. ? Ethical Dilemma â€Å"Ethical dilemmas, also known as a moral dilemmas, are situations in which there are two choices to be made, neither of which resolves the situation in an ethically acceptable fashion. In such cases, societal and personal ethical guidelines can provide no satisfactory outcome or the chooser. Ethical dilemmas assume that the chooser will abide by societal norms, such as codes of law or religious teachings, in order to make the choice ethically impossible. † In the given case study, Kindred Todd is also in a situation which is an ethical dilemma. She had just finished her master degree and got a very company to join in. But she did not realize that she had been introduced as an expert on CQI to the potential clients which she discovers by the end of the meeting with the potential clients. She discussed with her boss about the need of the CQI expert but he did not give it an importance and indirectly pushed her to do what the company says. She has now a conflict between her own values(may be religious) which insist her on quitting the job and her personal materialistic needs which do not allow to leave such a good company for her career. Background for Ethical Dilemma â€Å"In a perfect world, businesses and their employees would always do the right thing. Unfortunately, in the real world, ethical dilemmas are a common occurrence in the orkplace. According to the Merriam Webster Dictionary, dilemmas are situations or problems where a person has to make a difficult choice; an ethical dilemma is a problem where a person has to choose between a moral and an immoral act. Employees must deal with pressures to perform and help the company succeed as well as personal temptations to take the easy way out. In the end, workers will likely face many dilemmas in their careers; companies should provide training and information to assist them in making the right decision. † There are many reasons which make the background or the reasons for the ethical dilemma. Employees in organizations undergo in such a situation when they are sometimes under the pressure from management . When they are particularly asked to do something which is un ethical but it goes in the company’s favor. In some cases, some employees become quite ambitious and want to succeed in their life at any cost without considering the concept of being ethical or un-ethical. They just do what akes them towards promotions or higher career. â€Å"Though diversity is an important part of business, some people may not be comfortable with people from different backgrounds and possibly be reluctant to treat them fairly. This kind of discrimination is not only un ethical but illegal and still remains common. † â€Å"Negotiators may also try to bribe their way to a good deal.  While this is illegal in the U. S. , it still sometimes happens; in other nations, it is more common, and sometimes even expected, which can put negotiators in a difficult position. † This means in organizations negotiating tactics are sometimes also the cause of ethical dilemma. ? How the Consultant Handled the Situation from Ethic View Point The consultant raised an objection before the president of the company instead of remaining uiet on the issue that why she had been introduced wrongly as a CQI expert. Moreover, she passed on the exact evaluation of her meeting about the potential clients and stress on the need of an CQI expert in order to deal with the clients. At least, in order to secure the job, she did not pretend that she can do anything they want. The best part was that she did her best to help the clients in the area of quality improvement by going through books and consulting her friends, so much so that she had a consultant behind her, unseen, to help sort out CQI issues. After the assigned work got over, she resigned the company, as she could’t trust the company for future. A View of How the Learner would have Handled the Situation Differently I would have not been, probably so daring to ask the president for the actual requirement of the clients or might not have resigned the job. ? Conclusion In a workplace, ethical dilemmas are quite common. There are different reasons for a worker to become ethical or un ethical. So, the important thing how you win the war between your values and materialistic needs.

Thursday, September 5, 2019

“Ethics in Policing” Essay Example for Free

â€Å"Ethics in Policing† Essay In The Ethics of Policing, John Kleinig presents a broad discussion of the ethical issues that overwhelmed existing police organization and individual police officers. This debate is set surrounded by others that bring in the reader to basic approaches at present in support among moral philosophers (social contract, neo-Kantian and utilitarianthough thought of the recent efforts to widen virtue-oriented ethical theories is regrettably absent) and to many of the significant questions posed in the swiftly growing subfield of practiced ethics (such as whether professional ethics are constant with or in clash with so-called ordinary ethics). The discussions are consistently even-handed, broad and extraordinarily rich in detail. Kleinig sets out typologies of the kinds of force used by the police as well as variety of dishonesty in which they occasionally engage range of distort exercise, alternative actions for holding police responsible, and the like. He offers wide-ranging debate of the role and history of police codes of ethics, the changes made on the personal lives of police, and the challenges to police management facade by unionization and confirmatory action. In short, this book is much more than a directory of police ethical issues with reference for their solutionit is that, of course, but it is also an beginning to professional ethics in general, a articulate staging of important existing moral theories, a outline of the key legal decisions affecting police work, and a rich representation, both understanding and essential of the police officers world. Kleinig concentrates on his topic with a large idea of ethics, one that runs from meticulous problems (such as police judgment and use of force), through common problems (such as the ethics of misleading tactics and the nature of dishonesty), to deliberation of the effects of police work on police officers moral fiber (such as the regrettable inclination of police to distrust and hostility), all the way to organizational difficulty (such as those about the arrangement of answerability and the status of whistleblowers). Right through his rich and caring conversation, it seems as if the difficulty of ethical policing is just that of how the police can morally carry out the job they are assigning and putting into effect the laws they are furnished to implement. Kleinig considers that many of the ethical problems facing the police have their cause in (or are at least supported and assisted by) the trend of police to appreciate their own role as that of law enforcers or crime-fighters. This promotes over trust on the use of force, predominantly lethal force and enhances police officers sense of hostility from the society they are sworn to serve. Furthermore, this self-image makes police doubtful of, hostile to, and commonly unhelpful with police administrations inspired programs such as community policingthat aim to redesign the police into a more comprehensible organization. Amusingly, the police self-image as crime-fighters continue in the face of practical studies showing that law enforcement per se, the engaging and catching of criminals, takes up only a small number of police officers work time. Much more time is in fact spent by the police doing things like crowd and traffic organizing, dispute resolution, dealing with medical tragedies, and the like. Consider Kleinigs argument of police dishonesty. Kleinig takes up Lawrence Shermans view that allowing police to agree to a free cup of coffee at a diner starts the officer on a slippery slope toward more serious graft because, deliberating he has accepted a free cup of coffee makes it difficult for the officer to stand firm when a bartender who is in action after legal closing hours presents him a drinkand this in turn will make it harder to resist yet more serious attempts to bribe the officer to not enforce the law. Sherman then suggests that the only way to fight corruption is to get rid of the kinds of laws, first and foremost vice laws that provide the strongest lure to corruption of both police and criminals. In opposition to Shermans view, Kleinig believe sthat of Michael Feldberg, who argue that police can and do differentiates between minor gratuities and bribes. Kleinig consent. Kleinig takes corruption to be a topic of its motive (to misrepresent the carrying out of justice for personal or organizational gains) relatively than of particular manners. This is a nice difference that allows Kleinig to detach corrupt practices from other ethically problematic practices, such as taking gratuitiesof which the free cup of coffee is an example. Quoting Feldberg, Kleinig writes that what makes a gift a gratuity is the reason it is given; what makes it corruption is the reason it is taken (Kleining, 1996, 178). Gratuities are given with the hope that they will encourage the police to frequent the organization that give them, and certainly, the police will often stop at the diner that gives them a free cup of coffee. Thus, Kleinig follows Feldberg in philosophy that recieving coffee is wrong because it will tend to draw police into the coffee-offering business and thus upset the democratic value of even-handed distribution of police protection. Kleinig takes up the question of entrapment by first allowing for the so-called subjective and objective advances to determining when it has occurred. On the subjective approach, entrapment has happened if the government has rooted the intention to commit the crime in the defendants mind. So implicit, the defence of entrapment is overcome if the government can show that the defendant already had (at least) the outlook to perform the type of crime of which he is now blamed. On the objective approach, anything the intention or disposition of the real defendant, entrapment has arised if the governments contribution is of such a character that it would have made a usually law-abiding person to commit a crime. Kleinig condemns the subjective approach by indicating that the behaviour of a government cause that constitutes entrapment would not do so if it had been done by a classified citizen. Thus, the subjective approach fails to clarify why entrapment only relay to actions performed by government means. For this grounds, some turn to the objective approach with its stress on improper government action. However, as Kleinig skilfully shows, this approach experience from the problem of spelling out what the government must do to, so to converse, create a crime. It cannot be that the government agent was the sine qua non of the crime since that would rule out lawful police does not entice operations; nor can it be that the government agent simply made the crime easier since that would rule out even undisruptive acts of providing public information. The objective approach seems based on no more than essentially controversial intuitive judgments about when police action is excessive or objectionable. The reason is that this account is susceptible to the same opposition that Kleinig raised in opposition to the subjective approachit fails to explain why entrapment only relates to actions carried out by a government agent. Certainly, the problem goes deeper because Kleinigs account supposes that government action has a particular status. As Kleinig point to, the same actions done by a private citizen would not comprise entrapment. It follows that actions done by a government agent can dirty the evidentiary picture, while the same actions done by a private citizen would not. But, then, we still need to know why entrapment refers only to actions carried out by government agents. To answer this, Kleinig must give more power to the objectivist approach than he does. When it does more s Kleinig notes but fails to integrate into his accountthe government becomes a tester of virtue rather than a detector of crime (Kleining, 1996, 161). Indeed, much practical crime fighting is wrong because it does not so much fight crimes as it fights criminals, taking them as if they were an unseen enemy who need to be drawn out into the unwrap and take steps. As with corruption, it seems to me that Kleinig has measured entrapment with active criminal justice practice taken as given and thus, by default, as not posing a confront to ethical policing. Kleinig suggests that as an alternative of law enforcers or crime-fighters, police ought to be consider and think of themselvesas social peacekeepers, only part of whose task is to put into effect the law, but whose larger task is to remove the obstruction to the even and pacific flow of social life. (Kleining, 1996, 27ff) Kleinigs disagreement for significant the police role as social peacekeeping has three parts. The first part is the gratitude that, while social agreement theories lead to the idea of the police as just law enforcers, the information is that we have (as I have already noted) always likely the police to play a larger role, taking care of a large diversity of the barrier to quiet social life. The second part of the quarrel is that the idea of the police as peacekeepers, in totaling to equivalent to what police essentially do, reverberates adequately with practice, in exacting with the idea of the kings peace, the organization of which might be thought of as the predecessor of modem criminal justice tradition. Kleinig thinks will flow from this preconceiving of the police role: a less confused, more helpful and pacifying relationship between the police and the society; a compact dependence on the use of force, particularly lethal force, to the point that force is sighted as only a last alternative among the many possessions accessible to the police for eliminating obstacles to social peace. The very fact that police are armed (and dressed in military-style uniforms) for law enforcement makes it just about overwhelming that they will be used for crowd and traffic control. Subsequently, if a small group of persons is to keep a large, volatile and potentially dodgy group in line, it will surely help if the small group is armed and in distinguishing dress. As for the other jobs allocated to the police, it must be distinguished that these jobs are not generally executed by the police for the community as a whole. Middle class and wealthier folks do not turn to the police for dispute resolution or help in medical emergencies. Ignored in this way, the poor call on the police when there is problem and reasonably so. The police are at all times there, they make house calls, and they do not charge. Practices that outcome from our negligent treatment of the poor should scarcely be lifted to normative position in the way that Kleinig in cause does by speaking of what we have allocated to the police. Only some have had the authority to assign the police these additional jobs, and even those influential few seem more to have deserted the jobs on the police than considerately to have assigned them. Most significantly, however, distinguishing the police as peacekeepers has the trend to cover over what is still the most important truth about the police, the very thing that calls for extraordinary good reason and for particular answerability, namely, that the police have the ability to order us around and to use aggression to back those orders up. For example, when Kleinig takes up the police arguments that they should be treated like proficiently and thus standardize themselves, Kleinig objects only on the position that It is uncertain whether police can lay claim to such focused knowledge not available to lay persons as renowned professions, such as medicine and law do. (Kleining, 1996, 40) Similarly, in explanation why police may correctly be focused to civilian review boards, Kleinig says that the police provide a society service at a cost to the society and thus ought to be answerable to the public they serve. (Kleining, 1996, 227) The police are precisely subject to remote review to a level that the local authority company is not, and the grounds are the particular authority and authority the police have and the suitably tense relation involving that power, essential as it is, and the free public it both defend and threatens. Conceivably, after all, the cops are right in opinion of themselves as law enforcers and crime fighters. Reading John Kleinigs book is an extremely good way for anyone to learn just how uncomfortable that situation is. References Kleining, John (1996) The Ethics of Policing, New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.