Saturday, August 31, 2019
In Ã¢â¬Å"Of the Dawn of Freedom,Ã¢â¬ author W. B. Du Bois (1903) points out the historical basis for the persistence of racism as a problem. Written almost three decades after the civil war, the text is addressed to both African-American and White people who comfort themselves with the illusion that the granting of the right of suffrage to African-Americans instantly solved the problems of inequality. This is evident in how Du Bois illustrates that contrary to popular perception, the Civil War did not totally lead to the emancipation of African-Americans and that the subsequent Ã¢â¬Å"Negro suffrage ended a civil war by beginning a race feudÃ¢â¬ (34) wherein African-Americans became the subject of contempt of Southern White populations who fought against the abolition of slavery. Indeed, Du BoisÃ¢â¬â¢ observations accurately mirror the situation of African-Americans until today. Clearly, African-Americans are still subjected to deeply-held stereotypes that systematically degrade and debase them on the basis of what Du Bois calls Ã¢â¬Å"the color-line. (9) Despite the abolition of slavery, African-Americans continued to be socially-marginalized. Consequently, African-AmericanÃ¢â¬â¢s situation as Ã¢â¬Å"a segregated servile casteÃ¢â¬ (37) after slavery was abolished only resulted in the formation of a double consciousness or an identity confusion owing to the lack of their clear role in society and their alienation from the dominant White culture. In effect, the abolition of slavery also uprooted both African-Americans and White Americans from the customs and clear norms that arose from centuries of slavery. Without the delineations of the slave order, African-Americans found it difficult to establish their identity especially as the White Americans did not want to accommodate the ex-slaves into the folds of society. It is therefore not surprising that African-Americans continue to be subjected to racist perceptions. As Du Bois rightly points out, the freedom of the Black Americans was immature in so far as the Whites regarded them not as their equals but looked condescendingly at the newly-freed Black people as their inferiors and Ã¢â¬Å"helpless wards. Ã¢â¬ (34)
Friday, August 30, 2019
My Left Foot Film Review My Left foot is the true story of a young boy called Christy Brown, played by Hugh OÃ¢â¬â¢Connor and Daniel Day-Lewis, Christy is born into a poor working class family in Dublin, Ireland, with a physically disabling condition known as cerebral palsy. Considered a vegetable and using his only functional limb(his left foot) Christy becomes a very successful writer and artist with the help of his strong willed mother and teacher. I personally really enjoyed this ? lm, I liked the way it was set in Ireland during a time where religion ruled society. Almost every family in Ireland had their lives run in the way of the church, the cardinal sins were almost like laws, and were obeyed better than real laws. We see this when christys mother ? nds the Ã¢â¬Ëun-godlyÃ¢â¬â¢ magazine under Christy in his wheel barrow. Society was set in stone and nobody tried to better themselves. The sonÃ¢â¬â¢s and daughters of every family followed in their fathers or mothers footsteps. Everybody had their place in society the upper class lived to work, so as to make themselves richer and richer where as the lower class worked to live, so they could get by in life. Christy however was an acception to this, he bettered him self in society by becoming an achieved artist and writer, and this allowed him to break the mould and become something nobody thought he could ever be. I found my Left Foot quite inspiring because of Christys achievements, it shows that theres always a way to be something that you want to be even if the odds arenÃ¢â¬â¢t in your favor! It also shows that if someone beleves in you, you can go very far in life, just like christys mother beleived in him when nobody else did. I loved Daniel Day-Lewis in this movie because of his spectacular interpretation of the disease cerebral palsy, as you can imagine playing the role of a handicapped man must have been quite challenging but Lewis managed to pull it off. My only dislike about the ? lm is that I felt it was a ? lm that I could only watch once, because the ? lm deals with such a serious matter I feel that its not something Id want to view again. I thought the setting, along with the costumes and props were very accurate in picturing life in the 1930Ã¢â¬â¢s and 40Ã¢â¬â¢s, the houses and neighbour-hood was exactly what you would expect it to be like as well as the opinion and beleifs of the community.
Thursday, August 29, 2019
This paper deals with issues relating to a newly hired CEO of an existing company. The CEO incorporates his own ideas and systems into that company to change the flow of productivity. His implementations had successes and failures. It is important to note the criticism as such in order to best determine what he could have put into place. In January of 2000, an individual by the name of Steve Bennett joined a company called Intuit. Intuit is responsible for the Quicken software, and Bennett served as the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s president and chief executive officer.There were several factors leading to the success of Intuit. First and foremost, Bennett was not without experience. He spent the past twenty-three years at General Electric and was benefited by the already in-place expertise that IntuitÃ¢â¬â¢s already in-place expertise. BennettÃ¢â¬â¢s goal was to have the leaders at all levels of Intuit make decisions that benefited the whole company. However, twenty-four months after his ac ceptance into the company as CEO, Intuit was still struggling with this new concept and the steps Bennett implemented to reach that concept.Several tense moments developed between existing managers. One of the steps was that managers were now expected to concentrate on their own work but also on the work and development of the entire organization. In doing this, the managers were expected remain accomplished. Bennett felt that roles were unclear and not clean cut. There seemed to be no cross organizational procedures in place and he aimed to fix that. It wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t long before his intentions became confusing, as the primary focus and responsibility of the managers was convoluted.What formed as a result was a staggering chasm between the two parties. Chaos ensued, as employees were left to weed through new changes, more rules and altered procedures. Many employees made the choice to leave. Others were asked to leave. While it is evident that Bennett initially had a shortcoming in bringing the company together, he was able to write job descriptions and performance objectives for all his direct reports. Nonetheless, the corporate structure of Intuit was weak upon his arrival.Bennett believed in shared vision and collaborative functioning, a concept utilized successfully by other executives and praised in the business. In response to the article All the Wrong Moves, for example, critic Christopher McCormick, praises an executive for Ã¢â¬Å"asking the right questions of the experts in his organizationÃ¢â¬ ¦that would lead to more cross-functional collaboration. As a result of collaboration and analysis, Bennett was able determine key players in the organization and was also able to bring in new personnel, reshape the budget and set a new pattern for the future.Critics have argued that Bennett came in too fast and upturned the applecart too swiftly. Perhaps his changes were too liberal for an otherwise conservative operation. Or, as Hauke Moje stated in his All the Wrong Moves critique, it is necessary to Ã¢â¬Å"install firm management rules and build trust within the company. Ã¢â¬ However, there is no doubt that, as a result of the restructure, the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s performance has indeed increased and numbers multiplied. Those who survived the initial turnover wave and stayed with the company were rewarded for their patience and assistance.It is necessary to state that Steve Bennett had the expertise to make real changes as well as expectations of success. While this forced some into insecurity about their jobs, Bennett was persistent. He was, as a result, successful in under-layering and transforming Intuit into a collaborative company. He didnÃ¢â¬â¢t surrender, even when the road looked bleak. References: Steve Bennett, CEO Intuit Ã¢â¬â webpage Harvard Business SchoolÃ¢â¬ ¦. Intuit, Inc. Transforming an Entrepreneurial Company into a Collaborative Organization Garvin, David (2006). All the Wrong Moves. Harvard Business Journal.
Wednesday, August 28, 2019
Global Economy - Case Study Example Dani Rodrik had proposed a new dimension for global economic conditions. There are a lot of factors which contributes towards financial capital and differentiates rich countries from that of poor ones. Economic development and growth is only facilitated through capabilities being accumulated over a longer period of time. This truly encompasses technologies, public institutions and skills. It is not possible for globalization to leverage all such capabilities. They can only be leveraged by nations. East Asian nations have been able to enhance domestic productive capacities before entering into international markets. Reinvigorating requires maintaining a balance between markets and states without losing essence. Financial globalization Dani Rodrik throughout his works has highlighted various aspects affecting globalization process. There lies a major threat with globalization in terms of providing social insurance by national governments. Globalization often results into conflicts between and within nations over social institutions and domestic norms. Domestic democracy plays a vital role in sustaining global capital. However it is often a challenge for such democracy to protect oneÃ¢â¬â¢s nation from global threats. Culture and technology can only be strengthened through domestic democracy and these factors contribute towards achievement of global capital (Steger 52-55). On the other hand, skilled and unskilled workers during globalization tend to become substitutive and elastic. I certainly feel that globalization has supported many nations to strengthen their position across the globe. There are threats associated with globalization and this has made many countries impose strict regulations or norms while trading with international markets. For instance, some European countries have laws stating that international players need to
Tuesday, August 27, 2019
Critical theory, philosophy - Essay Example that part of a personÃ¢â¬â¢s imagination which is justified through the knowledge he or she garners via various life experiences like reading, interaction as well as seeing and hearing. This understanding is a part of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s overall perspective and subsequent take on life. Therefore, this book is an important one as human understanding is deeply connected with the written word and the way it has been written. If those words, whether in a philosophical text or otherwise, manage to justify an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s personal truth, or appeal to his or her sense of balance in life, then it contributes to his or her understanding. In this way, the choice of LockeÃ¢â¬â¢s text is an important one for this paper. LockeÃ¢â¬â¢s text starts with a study of innate notions. This portion of the book is a study of the elements that lead to speculation and a subsequent formation of perspective. Throughout this part, Locke has managed to hook the reader on to the idea that speculation is an element that must be used in very discreet doses as more of it can damage the practical side of things in oneÃ¢â¬â¢s mind. (Locke, 2007) As a philosophical notion, this is an ideal that is true to writing. In writing, it is imperative to stick to a certain balance between factual information and a small amount of speculation. This holds on to peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s imagination and memories. Therefore, in this part of the book, Locke has merely described a style of writing. Further into the book, one will find ideals that are connected with principles in the mind. The mind is an organ that churns out thoughts and expressions of the same. These expressions are a part of the basic mental setup of the person concerned. While every individual does not need to be a writer, it has been said often that there is a book in everybody. This is largely an overthrow of the fact that literary skills have been highly respected in many people. It is a desirable quality. This quality, in turn, springs from an ability to form a successful
Film review the film is No Country For Old Man - Essay Example Although the Western Country terrain is a time-tested cinematic formula, the directors bring fresh perspectives to it. The acclaimed Western Classicism of past directors as Anthony Mann and Sam Peckinpah are presented within new frameworks. Tommy Lee Jones (Ed Tom Bell) plays the sheriff in a West Texas county, who increasingly grows wary of crime and violence in the region. As tension hangs about the county, a drug deal duel breaks out, in which several men are killed and a few others wounded. Josh Brolin (Llewelyn Moss) who finds himself caught in this swirl luckily escapes injury. More fortuitously, he gets possession of a satchel containing $2 millions, which he hordes away in his trailer park home. But when he returns to the scene to save a wounded man later that night, he is chased by two unknown persons and also loses his vehicle in the process. The tempo increases from this point on, as different parties attempt to get hold of the cash. Javier Bardem (Anton Chigurh) plays the role of a hitman hired to get back the satchel. Hence he starts his chase of Llewelyn Moss. Having already killed a police officer before, he is sought by Ed Tom Bell. Hence a triangle of targets is set up in the plot. The further encounters and the attendant suspicion between the three parties constitute the rest of the narrative. Although such a story line is not unique by any means, the screenplay and dialogue are crisply written and well-executed by the actors. Particularly impressive is the role of Anton Chigurh, played by Javier Bardem. As Houston Chronicle reviewer Amy Biancolli succinctly notes, Ã¢â¬Å"he is diabolical in this guise, and he would be even if he didnÃ¢â¬â¢t stroll through the movie plugging holes into foreheads with a compressed-air tank. Few actors can play single-mindedness as chillingly as Bardem...Ã¢â¬ (Biancolli, 2007) The screenplay is laced with a morbid, dark sense of humor, which goes well with the underlying plot structure. There are semblances to Texas Chainsaw Massacre, but in terms of symbolism and metaphor No Country is richer. Especially striking are metaphors of evil in the actions of the wrong-doers, who are earnestly pursued by the dutiful Sheriff, who comes across as a lone-ranger amid the litany of evil mongers running after quick money. Coen brothers need also be credited for their able handling of the novel form and its smooth adaptation onto screen. Given their poor track record of novel adaptations, this is an impressive and faithful work. Although gun violence is integral to the plot and the genre, there is too much of it during climax sequences. And as expected it is Anton Chigurh who is at the centre of much of the carnage. His shooting spree at times borders on the insane and the directors might have gone overboard in this respect. Tommy Lee Jones is the stand out actor among the cast, for though he could not prevent the killings or accomplish his mission, his commitment and moral authority is clearly vi sible. As the story marches towards its conclusion, there is evidence of despondency in JonesÃ¢â¬â¢ eyes, which is recognition of his failure to avert much of the transpired violence. In conclusion, the words of noted critic Ian Buckwalter serve as a suitable summary assessment of the merit of the movie: Ã¢â¬Å"But don't let the humor fool you.
Monday, August 26, 2019
Electronic Communication in the Service and HRM Sectors - Research Paper Example It is claimed further on that HRM is focused on an individual and the positive effects of electronic communication improve organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s performance. Nevertheless, both face-to-face communication and electronic communication depend on trust, reliability and openness. Introduction Electronic communication has rushed into the business world. A new era of communication has borne its fruits. Currently, any organization introduces different forms of electronic communication to foster business success. Therefore, e-mails and IMs, social networks and online conferences discussed further are positioned as modern solutions for business challenges. E-communication is a helpful and effective tool enabling people to share their ideas and thoughts instantaneously. E-mail in business is an effective tool of sharing oneÃ¢â¬â¢s ideas, receiving instantaneous messages, and fostering business: Ã¢â¬Å"Organizations can use electronicÃ mail for product development, training, giving, and re ceiving work assignments, testing, personnel administration, problem solving, posting notices, marketing, and sending personal communication. Many organizations believe e-mail gives them a competitive advantage, because it is fast, inexpensive, readily available, and not dependent on receiver availabilityÃ¢â¬ (Nantz & Drexel 1995, p. 45). This type of electronic communications is especially important for human resource managers, which use it for new employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ searching or communicating with the employees of the organization. Business letters are delivered quickly and the sustainability of information sent in these messages is relevant to current issues of any business field. A special role electronic communication plays for HRM. E-mail communication can play both a positive and a negative role for a sender. Thus, an individual shoula be careful what and how you e-mail. In any case, whatever he/she writes or sends by means of the Internet can be shown to other people, cr iticized, or misinterpreted. Cyberspace is cruel, and the material sent should be properly considered and grammatically and ethically correct. No vague, intricate, or intimidating messages should occur on the web (Hartman, Lewis & Powell, 2002). Otherwise, a business email turns into a messy and a casual note. Thus, one should set clear goals and proofread messages, because e-mails are means of effective business communication. HRM managers should be focused on appropriate usage by the employees of electronic communication both at work and at home. Very often, an employee can post intimidating messages about his employer and this type of behavior should be appropriately controlled by human resource managers. Challenges and Opportunities of Online Communication in HRM The modern business world is full of opportunities. Both technological innovations and Internet development foster online communication. Modern organizations implement different forms of online communication in their daily practices and try to solve the problems of communication barriers among employers and employees. There is a need to communicate online in compliance with etiquette norms. Business messages should be grammatically correct, concise and relevant (Flynn, 2004). Vague or long letters should be deleted and rewritten, because it distracts attention of the receiver. IMs are used to receive more instantaneous answers, while
Sunday, August 25, 2019
The Internal Control over Cash Payments - Assignment Example No supervisor reviews the purchasing agentÃ¢â¬â¢s workÃ¢â¬ (The case study A, n.d.). In this case, the missing internal control characteristic is the proper approvals of the purchasing activities. The possible problem of the firm is a failure on the part of the purchasing department of the company to supervise and properly approve the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s purchases. The reason is that the purchasing agent bears the responsibility of approving the invoices and signing the checks without any supervision. This problem can be solved if the purchasing department assumes its supervisory responsibility for the purchasing activities of the company. Ã¢â¬Å"Rachel Williams owns an architectural firm. WilliamsÃ¢â¬â¢ staff consists of 19 professional architects, and Williams manages the office. Often, WilliamsÃ¢â¬â¢ work requires her to travel to meet with clients. During the past six months, Williams has observed that when she returns from a business trip, the architecture jobs in the office have not progressed satisfactorily. Williams learns that when she is away, two of her senior architects take over office management and neglect their regular duties. One employee could manage the officeÃ¢â¬ (The case study B, n.d.). In this case, the missing internal control characteristic is lack of separation of duties. The possible problem of the firm is a failure on the part of the top management (Rachel Williams, the owner of the firm) to distinguish the duties of the two senior architects, especially in her absence. The possible solution to the problem lies in making one of the senior architects an assistant manager. This way, imp ortant tasks will be performed both in the presence and the absence of the manager. Ã¢â¬Å"Mike Dolan has been an employee of the City of Southport for many years. Because the city is small, Dolan performs all accounting duties, in addition to opening the mail, preparing the bank deposit, and preparing the bank reconciliationÃ¢â¬ .
Saturday, August 24, 2019
Plagiarism - Essay Example Plagiarism may either be a deliberate action or unintentional. According to Plagiarism.org, actions that qualify as plagiarism include submitting other peoples views pretending they are your own views, duplicating other peoples ideas or research without acknowledging their contributions, improper citations which include citing false references, and duplicating the organization of words in a sentences without acknowledging the origin. It is worth noting that plagiarism can be averted through acknowledging the fact that the ideas, views, or sentence organization originated from a particular source (Plagiarism.org). There are a number of ways through which plagiarism can be averted. The secret to writing a plagiarism free essay or research paper is writing everything in owns words. Subsequently, other peoples views ought to be properly referenced of cited. In case one is not conversant with the various citation styles, it would be of significance to seek the help of the teacher or lecturer (Plagiarism.org). Plagiarism.org also asserts that initial preparations prior to the commencement of writing an essay or research paper is important in avoiding plagiarism. Coming up with a succinct sketch out or summary of ideas helps set a benchmark in regard to ideas to be retrieved from other peoples works and own ideas. It is of significance to assert that a writer ought to clearly separate his or her own ideas from those retrieved from other peoples works. However, it is also important to reword other peoples ideas so that a paper can appear original. Cited sources should be from well acclaimed researchers or sources in text citations should include the author of the book of source, year of publication, and page numbers depending on the citation style used. In definition, a citation is referred to as a method or technique used to notify those
Friday, August 23, 2019
Media Relations - Assignment Example the rules of the press releases using succinct statements, subject line, vis-Ã -vis the 6Ws: who, what, when, where, why, who cares (Howard & Mathews, 2006). The first paragraph informs the people of the salient points and the rest follows it with clear history of the issue, giving links to the parties involved and to the organization concerned. The least successful release is the one promoting new store opening. The main reason being that it is neither important for people in general nor does it have potential of a news worthy story. It is a local event that is best served by advertisement and not by a press release that would require further investigation or reporting. The release also has no headline/ subject line and is also not backed by hard figures of companyÃ¢â¬â¢s sales and performance record. Cutler (2012) strongly believes that these are essential elements of public relation strategy that must be reflected in the press release. Moreover, it is full of generalities and advertising junk which fail to make it a news item worth
Thursday, August 22, 2019
Jurisprudence Essay The term jurisprudence has been used in very different senses. Originally it meant the science of Right. Afterwards it was used to mean knowledge of the principles of law, or skill in its practice. In the institutes of Justinian Jurisprudence is define d to be the knowledge of what is just and unjust. Upon the revival of learning in Europe in the sixteenth century, jurisprudence was used to signify the knowledge of the Roman law. The term has also been used in a sense borrowed from the French to imply a collection of the principles belonging to particular branches of law Ã¢â¬â thus, Equity Jurisprudence, Maritime Jurisprudence. The term has also been used to signify the whole body of the law of a StateÃ¢â¬âthus, the Jurisprudence of England. The classification of laws has never yet been adopted upon the grand scale demanded by Jurisprudence. If a system of the Law were correctly framed, and if codes of laws were drafted of one true principle by all civilized nations, the language of each race would serve as a glossary by which all systems of positive law might be explained; whilst the matter in each code would afford a test and standard by which all might be tried. By law is here understood positive lawÃ¢â¬âthat is, the law existing by position, or, the law of human enactment. Jurisprudence is the science of positive laws, and, as such, is the theory of those duties which are capable of being enforced by the public authority. Jurisprudence, so treated, may take its place as one of those inductive sciences in which, by the observation of the facts and use of reason, systems of doctrine have been established which are universally received as truths among thoughtful men. But Jurisprudence in its in its investigation of the origin, principles, and development of law, obviously furnishes rules which teach men to acknowledge and select good laws, to shun evil laws, and to practice the existing laws and apply them skillfully. Hence, Jurisprudence is not only the Science of Positive Laws but is also the Art of Legislation and the practice of Advocacy. A Jurist may state principles of law in his study, enact laws in the senate, or advocate rights in his forum (Heron, 2001). Jerome and West contributionÃ The American Legal Realists exhibited many and diverse, not always compatible, attitudes towards the possibilities of exploring the future, even while making important contributions to needed theory and procedures. Thus Jerome Frank was a leader in deriding the possibilities of predicting official behaviour by the application of traditional legal rules and was most skeptical of the potentialities of reliable prediction by any means; yet he made uniquely significant contribution by drawing upon many psychologies to demonstrate the importance of predispositional factors (the subjectivities of decision makers) in affecting all decision. The insistence of the Realists, already described, that technical legal rules be related to categories of events in community process that raise comparable policy problems has tremendously increases the possibilities of achieving comprehensive and precise description of relevant past trends in decision and value consequences (Lasswell McDougal, 1992). Jerome Frank has set out in his well known workÃ¢â¬ ¦ to analyze the law from a psychoanalytical point of view. In the traditional teaching and presentation of the law Frank discerns a desire for certainty which he likens to the infantÃ¢â¬â¢s craving for infallible authority (father complex). Lawyers in general, and judges in particular, have clung to the myth of legal certainty, by establishing fictitious system of precedents, hiding before themselves and others the fact that every case is unique and requires creative decisions. A similar myth surrounds the activities of juries. Analytical jurisprudence expresses this child like desire for certainty and stability. FrankÃ¢â¬â¢s own ideal is the Ã¢â¬Å"the completely adult lawyerÃ¢â¬ (Marke, 1995). Although Gray joins Holmes as one of the two great Jurisprudential heroes for Jerome Frank, Karl Llewellyn, and the other legal realists, he is much more than that ; he is a kind of American John Austin, but one whose analytical Jurisprudence does not act as if legal concept originated and developed outside legal history. He represents the positivistic branch of the American pragmatic legal tradition. He is closer to Austin than Holmes, than but not as influenced as HolmesÃ¢â¬â or John DeweyÃ¢â¬â by historical jurisprudence, or the evolutionary controversy, or the increasing respect philosophers paid to the very idea of historical development( Gray,1999). Jerome was heavily critical of the work of Christopher Columbus Langdell, the American legal academic whose is best known for introducing the Ã¢â¬Ëcase methodÃ¢â¬â¢ of teaching law into American law Schools. Langdell viewed law as a science, which could be practiced very simply by applying legal rules mechanically to specific cases recorded in the law reports. LangdellÃ¢â¬â¢s method rested heavily on the positivistic notion that law resided solely in the reports of decided cases or in statutes. Jerome criticized this arguing that Langdellian legal science had very little to do with law, because it overlooked such things as the lawyer-client relationship and the rule of the jury. He argued that LangdellÃ¢â¬â¢s attitude towards law was typical of what he termed Ã¢â¬Ëthe basic legal mythÃ¢â¬â¢; lawyers promote the myth that legal rules can be applied in a mechanical way because they, like all human beings, are constantly looking for certainty. The purpose of Realism, on the other hand, was to expose this myth. This concern with what Frank saw as law in action, rather than with the Ã¢â¬Ëlegal mythÃ¢â¬â¢ of the law in the books, was typical of the concerns expressed by members of the legal realist movement. The contradiction which can be found in the work of not only of Jerome, but also of another American Legal Realists, is a serious flaw. However, American Legal Realism, with it emphasis on Ã¢â¬Ëlaw in actionÃ¢â¬â¢ rather than Ã¢â¬Ëlaw in the booksÃ¢â¬â¢ had a positive contribution to make to the development of Jurisprudence(Cownie, Bradney Burton, 2007). While some sought a stable referent, others, such as Mackinnon and Matsuda, sought to refashion old tools to serve new purposes. The equal protection clause of the American constitution seemed a promising candidate, and the Jurisprudence of antisubordination was born. West, Kennedy, Mackinnon and Matsuda are united in the belief that outsiders will not find freedom, justice, or equality in the law as it is. They insisted that lawÃ¢â¬â¢s empire is defined not by attitude, but by what really happens (and what does not happen). InequalityÃ¢â¬ ¦is not a bad attitude that floats in the sky but an embodied particular that walks on the ground. Ã¢â¬ An attitude of equal concern, one might say, can very easily leave unaltered the Ã¢â¬Å"embodied particularsÃ¢â¬ that constitute the reality of inequality as opposed to the theory (Berns, 1993). By promoting the idea that rights are crucial for the protection of individual autonomy, Robin West argues, liberal jurisprudence fails adequately to represent more identifiably Ã¢â¬ËfeminineÃ¢â¬â¢ values such as intimacy and care. Liberal jurisprudence is essentially masculine jurisprudence, in other words, because it prioritizes the distinctively male ethic of justice or rights. Robin West claims, Ã¢â¬Ëit is nevertheless an institution within which we work from a position of relative disempowerment. Ã¢â¬â¢ For feminist legal theorists, this sense of marginalization is attributable primarily to the fact that critical legal studies, like liberal jurisprudence, fails sufficiently to take into account womenÃ¢â¬â¢s experience, values and concerns (Duxbury, 1997). In 1988, Robin West began her well known-article Ã¢â¬Å"Jurisprudence and GenderÃ¢â¬ by asking WHAT IS A HUMAN BEING? Ã¢â¬Å"What is a human being? Legal Theorist must, perforce, answer this question: jurisprudence, after all, is about human beings. Ã¢â¬ Robin West. She concluded that women are not human beings insofar as legal theory is concerned. Her question, and the contribution of feminist theory to answer, forms a central theme to this work. If the definition of a human being is central to jurisprudence, it is vital to uncover whether that definition adequately encompasses all human beings. Western conceptions of human beings have been inadequate in that they have failed to encompass all human beings. In some instances this is because of the inherent constitution of the definition, while in others, the problem arises from the way theories have been misinterpreted (Marshall, 2005). Towards a Fist Amendment Jurisprudence of Respect. Robin comments that Goerge FletcherÃ¢â¬â¢s recent article helps us see that those understandings, in turn, rest on two different conceptions of what he labels our senses of Ã¢â¬Å"constitutional identity. Although it is largely undefined by Fletcher, we might take his phrase Ã¢â¬Å"constitutional identity to referÃ¢â¬ to refer to that aspect of our collective and individual self-conception which we owe to our shared constitutional heritage, and which at least on occasion determines outcomes in close constitutional heritage, and which at least on occasion determines outcomes in close constitutional cases in ways that Ã¢â¬Å"overarching principles of political moralityÃ¢â¬ do not. The two understanding of our constitution identity that seem to bolster these conflicting accounts of the constitutional status of hate speech regulations might be called, however unimaginatively, the liberal and the progressive paradigm. Both the liberal and unquestionably dominant account of free speech and the correlative liberal arguments against the constitutionality of hate speech regulations are deeply familiar. Both were recently affirmed by the Supreme Court, and both are eloquently spelled out in FletcherÃ¢â¬â¢s article. Like prayer in earlier times, expression of our innermost selves is a vital means of self fulfillment, and hence it is itself a moral act of high order. We each bare our individual, our innermost souls when we express ourselves. And, because we value individual souls, we protect and value our speech, whatever its context or side effects. We protect expression today for essentially the same reason we once protected religionÃ¢â¬ânamely, the constitutive role of expressive religion in earlier times, and expressive speech today, in the development of the individualÃ¢â¬â¢s personality(West,1994). Relevance of Jurisprudence The broad division of jurisprudential inquiry indicates that jurisprudence covers a wide area of study, dealing with a variety of issues and topics, as well as touching on a whole range of other subjects and disciplines. The unifying element in all these aspects of the study, however, is that, in every case, the main question that is being investigated and to which an answer is being sought is, briefly, Ã¢â¬Ëwhat is law? Ã¢â¬â¢ According to Chinhengo (2000), essentially, all jurists are seeking to explain the incidence, existence and consequence of law as a social phenomenon. Consequently, general questions to be answered are concerned with such matters as the following: Ã¢â¬ ¢ the origin and sources of law generally and/or in specific societies; the historical development of law in general and the emergence and evolution of specific legal systems, traditions and practices; Ã¢â¬ ¢ the meaning of specific legal concepts and the construction of various legal structures and processes; Ã¢â¬ ¢ the link between law and other social phenomena, such as political ideologies, economic interests, social classes, and moral and religious conventions; Ã¢â¬ ¢ the operation of the law as a mode of social control and the effects that it has on the persons to whom it applies, in terms of justice as well as social, economic and political developments. This interdisciplinary quality of jurisprudence has meant that a student of the subject has to touch on matters that would normally belong to such diverse other disciplines as philosophy, economic theory, sociology, anthropology, history, theology, and even geography. Within all these other areas of study are to be found the munitions of the jurists, who uses the conclusions and insights of scholars studying in such areas to explain law as a social phenomenon, and applies the methodology of these other modes of enquiry to further the understanding of particular legal concepts. In conclusion Jurisprudence, as a subject in many law school curricula, is intended to provide the law student with a device by which he can ground his or her academic knowledge of the black-letter of the law to the reality of the social context in which the legal rules, structure and processes actually occur and operate. The idea, then, is to link the wealth of legal concepts, rules, statutes, precedents, structures, and processes, which one has imbibed haphazardly over a period of time, to the systematic theoretical and sociological insights about the role and place of law in society which jurisprudence seeks to provide (Chinhengo, 2000).
Wednesday, August 21, 2019
Counselling and Psychotherapy Essay Carl Ransom Rogers (1902 Ã¢â¬â 1987) was amongst the most influential figures of humanistic psychology, a school of psychotherapy that rejected medical and psychoanalytic models of treatment, and instead put forth a theory of personality and behaviour that presumed the source of psychological health ultimately resides in the individual person rather than in a programme based on the expert knowledge and authority of a psychiatric professional. RogersÃ¢â¬â¢ specific form of humanistic psychology is broadly based on his view of human personality, which he believed naturally tended to develop in what he considered a healthy manner unless it is adversely influenced by life-experiences. From this theoretical basis, Rogers created a form of therapy that he called Ã¢â¬Ëclient-centredÃ¢â¬â¢, (or person-centred) as opposed to forms of treatment that are directed by the expertise of the therapist. In the field of Counselling and Psychotherapy there are many differing theories which are used to help those who seek counselling, including client-centred therapy. In many parts of the world client-centred therapy is seen as a family of therapies, including Experiential Psychotherapy and Focusing. Closely associated with client-centred therapy are existential therapy and various integrative approaches. Since Carl RogersÃ¢â¬â¢ death, there has been much debate regarding what can and cannot rightly claim to be called Ã¢â¬Ëclient-centred therapy.Ã¢â¬â¢ Proponents of the differing Ã¢â¬ËTribesÃ¢â¬â¢ argue for their schools of thought. (Warner 2006). At the heart of all the differing thoughts and modes of delivery are the six conditions for therapeutic change which Rogers described as being needed before a client could move towards the changes that they wanted to make in their lives. Carl Rogers, along with Abraham Maslow, was the founder of the humanist approach to clinical psychology. Maslow was known as the Ã¢â¬ËThird Force in PsychologyÃ¢â¬â¢ but is mainly known for his thoughts on self- actualization. Prior to Maslow it was thought that human behaviour was just a set of behaviours to satiate the drive for deficits. For example the Ã¢â¬Ëlack of nutrients feel hungry seek food and eatÃ¢â¬â¢ model. Maslow proposed a wide range of human needs in a dynamic and changing system, where needs at higher levels would only be addressed when needs at lower levels had been satisfied (see Fig 1): Rogers person-centred theory emphasised the concept of Ã¢â¬Ëself-actualizationÃ¢â¬â¢ which implies that there is an internal, biological force to develop ones capacities and talents to the fullest. The human organismÃ¢â¬â¢s central motivation is to learn and to grow. Growth occurs when individuals confront problems, strive to master them and, through experience, endeavour to develop new aspects of their skills, capacities, and views about life, and move forward towards the goal of self-actualization. By way of example, Rogers (1980) often illustrated the concept with reference to organisms in the natural world. He wrote about a potato in the root cellar of his boyhood home: Ã¢â¬Å"The actualizing tendency can, of course, be thwarted or warped, but it cannot be destroyed without destroying the organism. I remember that in my boyhood home, the bin in which we stored our winterÃ¢â¬â¢s supply of potatoes was in the basement, several feet below a small window. The conditions were unfavourable, but the potatoes would begin to sprout pale white sprouts, so unlike the healthy green shoots they sent up when planted in the soil in the spring. But these sad, spindly sprouts would grow two or three feet in length as they reached toward the distant light of the window. The sprouts were, in their bizarre, futile growth, a sort of desperate expression of the directional tendency I have been describing. They would never become plants, never mature, never fulfill their real potential. But under the most adverse circumstances, they were striving to become. Life would not give up, even if it could not flourish.Ã¢â¬ So it can be seen that Rogers was saying that this effective and strong constructive tendency is the underlying basis of the client-centred approach. Rogers groundbreaking understanding was that for a person to be truly helped, the important healing factor is the relationship itself. His view of human behaviour is that it is exquisitely rational Rogers (1961). Furthermore, in his opinion: The core of mans nature is essentially positive Rogers (1961), and he is a trustworthy organism Rogers (1977). Rogers focused on ways in which the therapist could promote certain core conditions between him/herself and the client. Central to his theory was that the actualizing tendency was a natural process, yet in order for each human organism to do so it required the nurturing of a caregiver. Rogers understood that inherently people need people, and that we are fundamentally dependent on others for our being. Many critics of the theory have misunderstood RogerÃ¢â¬â¢s concepts and commented that this is outmoded today, and, according to Bohart (2007) the critics were saying that it Ã¢â¬Å"glorifies the individual at the expense of othersÃ¢â¬ . Wilkins (2003) argued that RogersÃ¢â¬â¢ concept of self-actualization is culturally biased, reflecting a Western cultural emphasis on the separate, autonomous individualistic self. However, Bohart states that RogersÃ¢â¬â¢ concept of self as culture-specific is compatible with cultures which view the self in relational rather than individualistic terms, even cultures that have no concept of self. Self-actualization means enhancing or actualizing the self as the self is defined for that person and culture. Rogers did believe that the tendency of actualization of a person in therapy was to always go in a positive pro-social direction, but critics state that it may lead to self-centred, narcissistic behaviour (Bozarth and Brodley, 1991). Rogers recognised that environmental and social factors could inhibit or distort the process of actualization so that a negative rather than positive outcome may occur, but also that the fully functioning person is Ã¢â¬Ësoundly and realistically socialÃ¢â¬â¢ (Rogers 1961). Rogers postulated that therapeutic movement will only occur if, and only if, the six conditions for therapeutic change were in place between the therapist and the client. 1. The first condition of client-centred therapy is that therapist and client should be in psychological contact. The first condition specifies that a minimum relationship must exist. Rogers (1957) stated: Ã¢â¬Å"I am hypothesizing that significant positive personality change does not occur except in a relationshipÃ¢â¬ . (Sanders 2006) Ã¢â¬Å"The relationship is not seen as a third object in the room with the counsellor and the client, but is the client and the counsellor. They bring themselves into the room, and in doing so a unique and ever-changing relationship is the result.Ã¢â¬ Research into contact between animals and people who live in social groups has shown that in order to grow and become confident then it must be in a psychologically interactive way. Those who were deprived of such conditions, like the children in the orphanages of Romania and the monkeys in HarlowÃ¢â¬â¢s experiments, grew up with permanent behavioural and emotional problems. (Harlow 1959, Carlson 1999, Bowlby, 1953, Warner 2002). Rogers thought that psychological contact was an all-or-nothing, one-off event, but others like Rose Cameron (2003) and Whelton and Greenberg (2002) see psychological contact as a variable and dynamic quality in relationships, and Margaret Warner (2002:79) says that the Ã¢â¬Å"contact can be viewed as a continuumÃ¢â¬ . In my opinion, despite the differing views of the various Ã¢â¬ËTribesÃ¢â¬â¢, the one over-riding view is that psychological contact is essential if the therapeutic process is going to work. It can simply be the mere recognition of the other person in the room, or a deeply-shared experience between the therapist and the client. 2. Client incongruence, a state of being vulnerable and anxious, is presented as the second of the six conditions which Rogers defined as a Ã¢â¬Ëdiscrepancy between the actual experience of the organism and the self-picture of the individualÃ¢â¬â¢s experience insofar as it represents that experienceÃ¢â¬â¢ (Rogers 1957), and which he saw as being necessary for therapy to be successful. Pearson (1974) thought that this condition had created some confusion, since the relationship between incongruence and felt anxiety or vulnerability is complex. All people are incongruent to some degree all of the time (since human beings can never fully symbolize their experience), and some sorts of incongruence may actually lower anxiety. RogersÃ¢â¬â¢ concept of incongruence was simply saying that clients sense that they have underlying issues that have distorted their sense of equilibrium and therefore are motivated to seek counselling. I believe that this second condition affects how clients will respond to counselling because the change that needs to happen has to come from within the client and cannot happen against their will. For example, if someone is referred by a doctor, or school, or made to attend counselling with a spouse or parent, then the client will be in a state of incongruence and the first condition will not take place, without which there is no therapeutic relationship. 3. The third core condition is that the second person, the therapist, is congruent in the relationship. By congruent Rogers understood it to be real, genuine and transparent. As early as 1946 he wrote about the fact that the therapist should have a Ã¢â¬Å"genuine interest in the clientÃ¢â¬ . Rogers makes it very clear in a video on the internet where he is talking about what it means to be congruent when he says: Ã¢â¬Å"Can I be real in the relationship; this has come to have an increasing amount of importance to me over the years. I feel that genuineness is another way of describing the quality I would like to have. I like the term congruence, by which I mean that what I am experiencing inside is present in my awareness and comes out though my communication. In a sense when I have this quality I am all in one piece in the relationship. There is another word that describes it for me; I feel that in the relationship I would like to have transparency. I would be quite willing for my client to see all the way through me and that there would be nothing hidden, and when IÃ¢â¬â¢m real in this fashion that IÃ¢â¬â¢m trying to describe, I know that my own feelings will often bubble up into awareness and will be expressed, but be expressed in ways that wonÃ¢â¬â¢t impose themselves on my client.Ã¢â¬ (You Tube 2010). Despite RogersÃ¢â¬â¢ insistence that being congruent with clients is of paramount importance, a number of studies over the years have shown that no significant relationship exists between levels of congruence and outcomes in the therapeutic relationship (Klein et al 2002, Orlinsky et al 2004, Burckell and Goldried 2006, Feifel and Eells, 1963). In contrast Cooper (2008) has suggested that this may be because it is a Ã¢â¬Ëhigh frequencyÃ¢â¬â¢ event in therapy and therefore the correlation between genuineness and outcome are not truly recognisedÃ¢â¬ . Without an empathetic response from the therapist I believe that the client would not feel valued or understood and the therapeutic relationship would break down. 4. In the development of self-concept Rogers also stated that the fourth condition unconditional positive regard the complete acceptance and support for a person no matter what they say or do is necessary for self-actualization. By showing unconditional positive regard, or prizing, clients are said to feel valued and so accepted and take responsibility for themselves (Rogers 1957:98). Conversely, I believe self-actualization is thwarted by conditional positive regard when acceptance is dependent on the positive or negative evaluation of a persons actions. Those raised in an environment of conditional positive regard, Rogers felt, only feel worthy if they match conditions laid down by others Ã¢â¬â conditions of worth which, in turn, can lead to shaping themselves determined not by their organismic valuing or actualizing tendency, but by a society that may or may not truly have their best interests at heart. 5. The fifth core concept states that the counsellor should experience an empathic understanding of the clientÃ¢â¬â¢s internal frame of reference. Each of us perceives and responds to our environments as a unified and organised whole, and each forms their unique frame of reference. Our understanding of the world is shaped through our experiences, and each time these are interpreted on the basis of our personal value system. In order for a therapist to understand a clients behaviour it should be from the internal frame of reference of the client. Empathy is not just listening but trying to feel the experiences and feelings that the other person has at that moment in time. It involves stepping into their shoes and laying aside oneÃ¢â¬â¢s own perceptions, values, perspectives and meanings as far as possible. If the therapist attempts to understand the client on the basis of his/her own personal experiences, this would be an external frame of reference. When the therapist remains within the clients frame of reference, which is his/her own understanding of the world, it enhances empathy and promotes unconditional positive regard. Holding an external frame of reference might convey to the client that the therapist has their own agenda or is criticising the client. The question is, would the therapeutic process take place if the counsellor did not enter the clientÃ¢â¬â¢s world so personally? From the large number of studies that have been carried out in an attempt to measure clientÃ¢â¬â¢s reaction to the therapistÃ¢â¬â¢s empathy, the evidence shows it to be a Ã¢â¬Ëdemonstrably effective element of the therapeutic relationshipÃ¢â¬â¢ (Steering Committee, 2002). 6. The sixth and final condition client perception is as important as all the others, and is complementary to the idea that the first condition psychological contact is continued. Rogers (1959:213) wrote: Ã¢â¬Ëthat the client perceives, at least to a minimal degree, conditions 4 and 5 the unconditional positive regard of the therapist for the client and the empathetic understanding of the therapistÃ¢â¬â¢. To some degree client perception has been ignored over the years. Tudor in 2000 referred to it as Ã¢â¬Å"the lost conditionÃ¢â¬ . Sanders (2004) states that Ã¢â¬Å"Carl Rogers made it clear that the client was the centre of the therapeutic process, and furthermore it was the client who had the final say as to whether the Ã¢â¬Ëtherapist-provided conditionsÃ¢â¬â¢ were actually provided (as opposed to being assumed by the therapist)Ã¢â¬ . Dagmar Pescitelli (1996) argues that the theory of client-centred therapy may not be effective for severe psychopathologies such as schizophrenia (deemed to have a strong biological component) or other disorders such as phobias, obsessive-compulsive disorder, or even severe depression (currently effectively treated with drugs and cognitive behavioural therapy, or CBT). Pescitelli (1996) cites one meta-analysis of psychotherapy effectiveness that looked at 400 studies, and person-centred therapy was found least effective. In fact, it was no more effective than the placebo condition (Glass 1983; cited in Krebs Blackman, 1988). In contrast, meta-analyses of client-centred therapy as a whole support the theory that it is an efficacious and effective form of therapy, no matter what Ã¢â¬ËTribeÃ¢â¬â¢. It is similar to other orientations such as CBT and psychodynamic therapy, with evidence indicating that all schools may be efficacious for clients with depressive, traumatic, schizophrenic and health related problems, but there is less evidence on the impact of anxiety disorders (Elliott, Greenberg et al., 2004).
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
Education teaching and learning process education essay Different literatures were studied to define and to justify the importance of the different keywords as they relate to the study as well as to have a good background on the body of knowledge. This surely will be beneficial to the understanding of the essence of ICT tools in Education as they are simply referred as Educational Technology Tools. Technology is becoming an increasingly influential factor in education. The use of computers and mobile phones as complements to educational practices are very up-to-date development in the area as we are talking about online education. The explosion of computer use in different economic areas brought about the ICT dimension in almost everything we do these days. The demand of new skills and understanding of students and Educators are imposing itself as a reality, also the environment in which teaching and learning is taking place is under constant change as well as the instruction of the students. It is important to note that, in order to set the context, generally speaking, there is no one accepted definition of what constitutes technology. Technology is the word associated with anything that aims to facilitate the human life through change. Ursula Franklin, in her 1989 Real World of Technology lectures: defines technology as a practice, the way we do things around here. The Merriam-Webster dictionary offers a definition of the term as: the practical application of knowledge especially in a particular area and a capability given by the practical application of knowledge. 2.2 Education, Teaching and Learning Process Education from the Websters 1828 Dictionary read as follows: The bringing up, as of a child, instruction; formation of manners. Education comprehends all that series of instruction and discipline which is intended to enlighten the understanding, correct the temper, and form the manners and habits of youth, and fit them for usefulness in their future stations. To give children a good education in manners, arts and science, is important; to give them a religious education is indispensable; and an immense responsibility rests on parents and guardians who neglect these duties. Education is a concept in which Instruction, Teaching and Learning are major pillars: Instruction refers to the facilitating of learning toward identified objectives, delivered either by an instructor or other forms. Teaching refers to the actions of a real live instructor designed to impart learning to the student. Learning refers to learning with a view toward preparing learners with specific knowledge, skills, or abilities that can be applied immediately upon completion. For, education is any act or experience that has a formative effect on the mind, character or physical ability of an individual. In its technical sense education is the process by which society deliberately transmits its accumulated knowledge, skills and values from one generation to another. However there has always been a discussion on the matter of assuring continuity of passing on knowledge and a matter of fostering creativity, which propels the learners to the world of unknowns and forces the coming out of it with innovation and ingenuity. Both of these functions relate equally to knowledge and attitudes, to understanding and behaviour. They are the essence of the teaching/learning process. We want creativity, but we want it to emerge from what is known and understood. We want continuity and that too from what is known and understood. Learning environments in schools typically involve one or more adult teachers connected with a number of students, usually in well defined physical settings. Physically it may be in a room, full of particular furniture and equipment. The place of computers in learning for the majority of children is most likely to occur in the classroom and, for an increasing number, at home. However, most experts in the field of educational computing would characterise computers as interactive and thus admit them a place within the relationship structures of the classroom learning environment, not just the physical environment. The curriculum is concerned with What is learned and taught: includes objectives, content, and learning outcomes (the knowledge, skills and attitudes that students are intended to demonstrate). How this learning and teaching occurs: concerns teaching/learning methodology, teaching strategies and media resources. Most teaching/learning methods and strategies involve the use of some equipment. Some teaching methods may only include the use of a blackboard and chalk while others may make use of a television or overhead projector. This equipment and its use within the curriculum are often referred to as educational technology. 2.3 Educational Technology and ICT Educational technology concerns the technology that is used to facilitate the teaching/learning process. As such it is included in the how part of the curriculum. We could consider educational technology as the tools of the teaching trade, part of the medium used to convey the curriculum. Thus the technology used is determined by the intended curriculum. Also part of the context of the curriculum concerns the role of the teacher, the physical setting and the general pedagogical views of the teacher and education system. These are likely to affect the technology used and may involve the use of computers. Technology can be seen to be affecting the curriculum both in terms of content and methodology, there are a number of instances where the curriculum has been changed due to changes in technology, invention of new technology has added content to the curriculum (e.g. technology based on electricity) or new technology has made parts of the content obsolete (e.g. using calculators instead of logarithms for calculation). Information and communication technologies (ICTs) are a diverse set of tools and resources used to communicate, create, disseminate, store, and manage information. These technologies include computers, the Internet, broadcasting technologies (radio and television), and telephony. Nowadays there is an increasing interest in how computers and the Internet can improve education at all levels. Older ICT technologies, such as radio and television, have for over forty years been used for open and distance learning. There is a variety of terminology that describes the ways computers are integrated into the learning process and in the classroom: technology-mediated learning, computer-aided instruction, distance education, distance learning, educational technology, home learning technologies, computer-based education, instructional technology, multimedia, communications systems, Web-based learning, educational multimedia applications, and computer-mediated communication etc are just a sample of those. This variability in terminology is not a matter of disagreement among researchers, but simply implies that technology is a word that is used to describe different things to different people. Technology is a term that is used by many to describe, study, and evaluate the various ways computers are integrated into education, both inside and outside the classrooms. 2.4 Integrating Technology in Teaching Moreover, there is no consensus about what constitutes technology in learning or teaching. However, the common link tends to be some use of the personal computer to aid teaching or learning in some form or fashion. These technologies run the continuum of integration in education from entire courses put on the Web to technology integrated into a specific lesson. Though most research studies focus on computer-based technology, there are other teaching and learning technologies that are not computer-based. These can include overhead projectors, document cameras, laser pointers, robotics, television, VCR, DVD, demonstration equipment, sound systems, CDs, tape recordings, simulation machines, and models. Some researchers even consider the traditional piece of chalk and chalkboard a type of technology. Many educators have argued that the appropriate use of ICT by students can assist teachers in determining and catering for the prior knowledge of students. Further, it is usually also argued that ICT can assist students in engaging cognitively to a greater depth with knowledge domains. That is students are supported in employing the full range of thinking skills within authentic contexts. This is often discussed in terms of cognitive taxonomies such as that provided by Bloom (1964). Knowledge The learner must recall information (i.e. bring to mind the appropriate material). Comprehension The learner understands what is being communicated by making use of the communication. Application The learner uses abstractions (e.g. ideas) in particular and concrete situations. Analysis The learner can break down a communication into its constituent elements or parts. Synthesis The learner puts together elements or parts to form a whole. Evaluation The learner makes judgments about the value of material or methods for a given purpose. Generally speaking, there is an assumption that technology fosters learning merely by its use in the educational process. Ehrmann (1999) sums up this assumption very nicely: Technologies such as computers (or pencils) dont have predetermined impacts; its their uses that influence outcomes. This statement seems obvious, but many institutions act as though the mere presence of technology will improve learning. They use computers to teach the same things in the same ways as before, yet they expect learning outcomes to be better. (p. 32) In his essay, Clark (1983) said succinctly: Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦media are mere vehicles that deliver instruction but do not influence student achievement any more than the truck that delivers our groceries causes changes in our nutrition (p. 445). if learning occurs as a result of exposure to any media, the learning is caused by the instructional method embedded in the media presentation. (p. 26) Further, he posited that different types of media could be substituted for each other, because media are not responsible for any learning that might take place. Media are not the causal agents in the learning process; rather, instructional method is the active ingredient or catalyst that causes learning to take place. In contrast to Clarks argument, Kozma (1994) believed that the more appropriate question was not whether media do influence learning, but will they influence learning. He also contended that simply because we have not established a relationship between media and learning does not mean that one does not exist. He believed that, since we do not fully understand the relationship between media and learning, we have yet to measure it, and the failure to establish this relationship is caused in part by our theories of learning, or more specifically, behaviourism, with its basic assumption that a stimulus causes a response. Therefore, if the stimulus is not present, there is n o possibility for response. Kozma (1994) explained that in Clarks view media are simply mere vehicles or conduits for an instructional method (stimulus) that elicit a response (learning). Kozma argues that learning is a much more complex process than just a series of stimulus-response connections. Learning, in his view, is defined as an active, constructive, cognitive and social process by which the learner strategically manages available cognitive, physical and social resources to create new knowledge by interacting with information in the environment and integrating it with information already stored in memory (p.8). Thus, in Kozmas view, since the definition learning has evolved to embody more of a constructive process, our measurement of this process must evolve as well. Still others have argued for a complete reframing of the debate over technology and its effect on learning. Jonassen, Campbell, and Davidson (1994) believed that the Clark/Kozma debates focused too much on instruction and media and not enough on the attributes of the learner who ultimately constructs the knowledge. With all the various opinions on the relationship between technology and learning, it begs the question: who is right? It appears that each theorist brings an important perspective to the table. Clark is correct that technology has not necessarily revolutionized the process of learning. Technology has not helped humans develop a new way to learn. Learning is still something that is performed by the individual. However, in Clarks view, all an instructor would need to do is embed the appropriate instructional method into his/her lesson and learning should take place. We know, however, despite many instructors best efforts and superior teaching abilities, learning does not always take place. Kozma is also correct that we must examine technology and learning beyond a behaviourist context. Learning is an intentional act (Jonnasen, 1994) and the human being doing the learning should not be discounted. Researchers have established that there is no significant difference between learning with technology in distance education courses and learning in a traditional classroom, but they do not discuss how human motivation is influenced by technology. This could be a very important missing element in the debate. Which side you take in this debate depends largely upon how you define learning. If you subscribe to more behaviourist views of learning, Clark will make more sense to you. If you conceive of learning as a more cognitive or constructivist process, you would be more likely to agree with Kozma or Jonnasen. From a pedagogical approach, Information-processing theories emerged from a branch of cognitive psychology that focused on the memory and storage processes that enable learning. Theorist in this area explores how a person receives information and stores it in memory. The structure of memory that allows the learning of something new, relate to and is built on something learned previously and also how a learner retrieves information from short-term and long-term memory and applies it to new situations. The well-known information-processing theorist, David Ausubel, proposed that the way a learner receives and stores information affects the usefulness of the information, for example, by transferring current learning to learning other skills. On the other hand, the model of the behaviourist B.F. Skinner, infers that part of the Educators job is to modify the behaviour of students through positive reinforcement, thus under laying behaviour modification techniques in classroom management and programmed instruction. To this we may say that, the stimulus-response interaction between student and technology can be introduced through computers so as to aid instruction, by providing drills and practices on previously learned skills, from practice and tutorial software. The cognitive constructivist, Jean Piagets theory has two major parts: one component that predicts what children can and cannot understand at different ages, and a theory of development that describes how children develop cognitive abilities. The key implications to these are: First, learning is an active process where direct experience, making errors, and looking for solutions is vital for the assimilation and accommodation of information. The presentation of information is important, when it is introduced as an aid to problem solving. It functions as a tool rather than an isolated arbitrary fact. Second, learning should be whole, authentic, and real. Thus, in a Piagetian classroom there is less emphasis on directly teaching specific skills and more emphasis is laid on learning in a meaningful context. Technology, particularly multimedia, offers a vast array of such opportunities, with the support of educational software on videodisks and CD-ROMs, Educators can provide a learning en vironment that helps to expand the conceptual and experiential background of the audience. The social constructivist, L. S. Vygotskys theory has much more room for an active and involved Educator. He claimed that the central point of his psychological approach is mediation. Through mediation human cognitive growth and learning as peers and other members of his community engages in relationships with the material and social environment. Thus the use of technology can be used to connect students to each other via email, forum, newsgroups etc. Now, from here, which approach to choose? Which is best suited to enhance learning? What hardware or software to use? There is no right or wrong answers to these questions, acquiring hardware and software packages will partly resolve the problem. It is up to the Educator, who knows the lesson objectives, the expected results and the students, to choose which approach to use and what technology should accompany the approach. However the determination of the technologys worthiness for a given lesson could be answered by the following questions: Is the lesson content worthwhile? (Are there clear objectives, connected to standards or significant questions, etc?) Do the lesson activities engage students? How does technology enhance the lesson in ways that would not be possible without it? Educators should then look for the best means to facilitate a diversity of learning styles, and need to be competent observers of the social milieu in which learners interact as well as knowledgeable about the content to which they wish to expose learners. Hence, educators development is absolutely essential if technology provided to schools is to be used effectively. Simply by placing computers in schools, providing internet facilities, spending on IT hardware and software, without financing the educator professional development as well, is wasteful. Educators training of the use and application of technology is the key determining factor to improve student performance for both knowledge acquisition and skills development enabled by technology. Information technology professionals have an axiom that an unsupported technology is an unused technology. In an article for The Chronicle of Higher Education titled When Good Technology Means Bad Teaching, Jeffrey Young made the case that a poorly supported technology is actually worse than no technology at all. He argued that giving teachers technology without training has often done more harm than good to teaching and learning. This is undoubtedly true. At the teacher level without proper training and support the educators are faced with: the fear of embarrassment in front of pupils and colleagues, loss of status and an effective degrading of professional skills (Russell Bradley 1997) classroom management difficulties when using ICT, especially where pupil-to-computer ratios are poor (Drenoyianni Selwood 1998; Cox et al. 1999) lack of the knowledge necessary to enable teachers to resolve technical problems when they occur (VanFossen 1999) Educational technology is not, and never will be, transformative on its own; it requires educators who can integrate technology into the curriculum and use it to improve student learning. In other words, computers can not replace educators, as they are the key to whether technology is being used appropriately and effectively. They need to understand a subject enough to convey its essence to students. While traditionally this has involved lecturing on the part, new instructional strategies put the educator more into the role of course designer, discussion facilitator, and coach and the student more into the role of active learner, discovering the subject of the course. Even if students could learn independently with little or no involvement from their teachers on how to use technology to enhance their learning and skills development, they are highly unlikely to have those opportunities if educators do not let them have access to the technology. The term computer-assisted learning (CAL) has been increasingly used to describe the use of technology in teaching. Educators also need professional development in the pedagogical application of those skills to improve teaching and learning. They should be empowered to develop their knowledge and skills actively and experientially, in a variety of learning environments, both individual and collaborative. This, include a variety of learning strategies, encompassing direct instruction, deduction, discussion, drill and practice, deduction, induction, and sharing. Thus emphasis in the courses should be on the ways technology can facilitate and enhance his profession lives. Educators preparation programs are essential and as described by Kook (1997) it is the crucial issue to be addressed (p.58). The teacher of the future will depend on the computer for both personal productivity and for instructional activities. Kook lists thirty-three primary computer skills for teachers, ranging from navigating the Windows desktop environment, to using IRC chat, to installing software. Kook suggests that these skills should be part of the required courses for prospective teachers and insists that in the next century teacher education will be forced to accommodate a considerable amount of transformation to allow teachers to function effectively in the Information Age (p.59). Computer technology cannot be effective in the classroom without teachers who are knowledgeable about both the technology itself and about how to use it to meet educational goals. The most common barrier to adequate training is the expense involved. Without training, however, other technology spending has a marginal effect (Boyd, 1997). Learning to operate computer hardware, growing comfortable with many different software applications, developing management systems for student computer use, and redesigning lesson plans to make use of technology, takes a great deal of time. When combined with frustrating hardware glitches and software bugs, the task can become daunting for even the most determined. Often, what stops people is one little thing that they didnt know how to do. If you have a room full of kids when something goes wrong, it discourages you from trying it again (Zehr, 1997, p.3). Leading to the question why school teachers dont use, and sometimes resist, the use of computers? Hannafin and Savenye (1993) list some research-based possible explanations for teacher resistance to using computers. These reasons include: poorly designed software, doubt that computers improve learning outcomes, resentment of the computer as a competitor for students attention, unsupportive administrators, increased time and effort required of the teacher, fear of losing control of center stage, and fear of looking stupid. in front of the class. Viewing the teachers role as a continuum, Hannafin and Savenye (1993) also put the role of traditional lecturer and imparter of knowledge at one end and the role of coach, observer, and facilitator at the other end. They then generalize that the traditional end of the continuum embraces an objectivist learning theory while the other end is likely to embrace constructivism. The teachers view of learning, then, could be another source of resistance to classroom technology. A teacher may be open to technology but resist the accompanying change in learning theory. This would suggest that in addition to providing training in technology, schools and districts need to provide information, training, encouragement, and support to teachers in moving toward a more constructivist view of education. The management should champion the change, policies has to be adopted as from the management level down to the students, everybody contributing and accompanying the reform for it to be successful and to be able to take out the maximum benefit. This issue is addressed with difficulty, because Principals, on average, are 50 years old. Weve got a generation of people who are actually barriers to the infusion of technology in school systems and are afraid of it themselves (Quoted in Trotter, 1997, p.1). It has become clear over the past decade that simple motivational and short-workshop schemes are vastly insufficient to enable veteran (and even new, computer-generation) teachers to teach differently, and to teach well with technologies (Hawkins and Honey, 1993). The evidence suggested that teachers who use technology in their classrooms are more effective if they have received training, if they have district-level support and if they have a network of other computer-using teachers to share experiences with. Swan and Mitrani state that computers can change the nature of teaching and learning at its most basic level (1993). We need to ensure that we are using our current knowledge about the application of technology in education as a basis for proceeding in the future. The management has also its part in the integration of the the educational technology in the school. Policies and support programs must be initiated from the top management and they must be part of and accompany the change. The most important barrier to this integration is the financial barriers. They include the cost of hardware, software, maintenance (particular of the most advanced equipment), and extend to some staff development. Froke (1994b) said, concerning the money, the challenge was unique because of the nature of the technology. The initial investment in hardware is high but the costs of technology have to part of the cost of instruction. The integration reveals the institutional support through leadership, planning and the involvement of teachers as well as managers in implementing change.
Gangs, Belonging, and Acceptance A 12-year-old boy comes home from school. He enters his home through the front door and notices his mother sobbing. There is blood on the tissue she's holding. The boy starts to ask his mother why she is crying when he realizes what has happened. She answers his silent inquiry about why, by quietly saying, "your dad . . . he's on the back porch . . . he's had a bad day." Feeling helpless he goes to his room. From his window he can see his dad taking in the last swallow of beer and yelling, loud enough for the neighbors to hear, "Hey, bring me another beer. And where is that worthless son of yours? He was supposed to mow the lawn yesterday." The boy, having seen this too many times before, leaves the house the way he came in. Two blocks down the street he is approached by a gang member; and unceremoniously another child on the block has decided that gangs have something he wants; a since of belonging, acceptance. The gang becomes his family. This story is fiction, but fits the dynamic s of a family system that supplies the gangs with its members. Gang-member families differ from non-gang-member families in terms of quality of family interaction, supervision and discipline, family affection patterns, and maternal attitudes toward males. Non-gang member's families are more likely to go out together, are more likely to be consistent in their discipline, and are more likely to display their feelings openly in the family. The mothers of gang members described their husbands as rarely involved in the family's activities. They also had more negative attitudes toward their husbands (Adler,Ovando, & Hocevar, 1984). The gang member is not the only one effected when he starts his life in a gang. He p... ...e? What can the church and the community do to help? If we can't save the gang member, what can we do to protect the innocent family member and by-stander? It's easy to do nothing when asked, "What can we do?" Maybe the question should be, "What can I do?" Works Cited Adler, P.,Ovando, C. & Hocevar, D. (1984). Familiar correlates of gang membership: An exploratory study of Mexican-American youth. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 6, 65-76. Morales, A.T. (1992). Latino youth gangs: Causes and clinical intervention. In L. S. Vargus & J. Koss-Chiono (Eds.). Working with culture: Psychotherapeutic intervention with ethnic minority children and adolescents (pp. 129-154). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Smith, Commander Bryan. Corpus Christi Police Department. (2-10-97) interview over phone. Subject: Psychological effects on gang members and their families.
Monday, August 19, 2019
"...having a good start, not only do I fully intend to be the greatest architect who has yet lived, but fully intend to be the greatest architect who will ever live. Yes, I intend to be the greatest architect of all time." - Frank Lloyd Wright 1867-1959 It appears that from the very beginning, Frank Lloyd Wright was destined by fate or determination to be one of the most celebrated architects of the twentieth century. Not only did Wright possess genius skills in the spatial cognition, his approach to architecture through geometric manipulation demonstrates one aspect of his creativeness. Forever a great businessman, Wright seemed to know how to please his clients and still produce some of the most innovative and ridiculed buildings of the early century. While the United States appeared to be caught up in the Victorian style, Frank Lloyd Wright stepped out in front to face the challenge of creating "American architecture" which would reflect the lives of the rapidly growing population of the Midwest United States. Howard Gardner in his book "Creating Minds" does not make any mention of Frank Lloyd Wright, an innovator who drastically influenced architecture of the twentieth century around the world. CHILDHOOD Born in 1867 Wisconsin, Frank Lincoln Wright grew up in the comfort and influence of a Welsh heritage. The Lloyd-Jones clan, his mother's side of the family, would have great influence on Frank throughout his life. Unitarian in faith, the extended family lived within close proximity to each other thus enabling a strong support system for those born or married into the clan. Great themes within the Lloyd-Jones clan included education, religion, and nature. Wright's family spent many evening listening to William Lincoln... ...FERENCES Boulton, Alexander O. Frank Lloyd Wright: Architect: An Illustrated Biography, Rizzoli International Publications, New York, 1993. Color pictures and text following Wright's personal and professional life. Gill, Brendan, Many Masks: A Life of Frank Lloyd Wright, G.P. Putnam's Sons, New York, 1987. Text biography concentrating on Wright's hidden motivations and true personality. Heinz, Thomas A., Frank Lloyd Wright: Architectural Monographs No 18, St. Martin's Press, New York, 1992. Color photographs of the interior/Exterior of restored Wright homes. Lind, Carla, The Wright Style, Simon & Schuster, New York, 1992. Photographs of Wright's works, with text discussing his architectural productions and approaches. Secrest, Meryle, Frank Lloyd Wright: A Biography, Alfred A. Knopf, Inc. New York, 1992. Text biography of Wright's work and life.
Sunday, August 18, 2019
Themes of CervantesÃ¢â¬â¢ Don Quixote Miguel de CervantesÃ¢â¬â¢ greatest work, The Ingenious Gentleman, Don Quixote De La Mancha, is a unique book of multiple dimensions. From the moment of its creation, it has amused readers, and its influence has vastly extended in literature throughout the world. Don Quixote is a county gentleman disillusioned by his reading of chivalric romances, who rides forth to defend the oppressed and to right wrongs. Cervantes presented the knight-errant so vividly that many languages have borrowed the name of the hero as the common term to designate a person inspired by magnificent and impractical ideals. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã CervantesÃ¢â¬â¢ theme throughout the novel is consistent and straightforward. Despite the lengthy digressions and numerous episodic adventures, the theme of the novel is clear- the values of the Golden Age have been lost over the centuries and must be restored for the good of society. Before the fall of man when the earth was still a paradise, Don Quixote explained to some goatherds, Ã¢â¬Å"all things were held in common, and to gain [manÃ¢â¬â¢s] daily sustenance no labor was required of any man save to reach forth his hand and take it from the sturdy oaks that stood liberally inviting him with their sweet and seasoned fruit (134),Ã¢â¬ making it needless to steal, cheat or lie. He went on, Ã¢â¬Å"fraud, deceit, malice had not yet come to mingle with truth and plain-speaking.Ã¢â¬ Because the world is no longer in such a state, however, Ã¢â¬Å"the order of knigh...
Saturday, August 17, 2019
A Documentation of such a comprehensive finish cannot be completed without the help of numerous sources and people throughout the long rugged path of success. I too realized this fact and so, I take this opportunity to thank them all. Personally this documentation has helped me to gain knowledge and skills to understand people with disabilities and their struggle for survival.Therefore it indeed gave me a great opportunity to study the Community Based Rehabilitation programme (CBR) of Women's Develop Centre (WDC) understand the services they provide to the people with disabilities. This documentation would not have been possible if not for the generosity of number of person who spent their time with me. In particular, I wish to acknowledge Ms. Pearl Stephen, Founder Director, Women's Development Centre (WDC) who prompted me to undertake this study and for giving me the guidance and support. I also wish to acknowledge the support and informative guidance of Ms.Dammika Podiemanike, Coo rdinator, WDC CBR programme. I extend my thank you to all the staffs of CBR programme for helping me throughout this study by providing and facilitating to obtain necessary information Finally, I must mention here that all those who supported me in helping me to document have done so with an expectation of a successful documentation. Such an expectation has been my source of inspiration and encouragement. I express my sincere thanks to all of them albeit that I may not be able to present their names.Having completed the documentation, it is my hope that it will serve as a source of information for those who are interested on the subject of community based rehabilitation especially who are interested on research on such a subject, for donors to get an understanding as to how their resources are serving the humanity and most of all as a reflective material for WDC management and staff for appreciating their own work as well as for further enhancement of their programme. It is my wish that this documentation will bring more light to further enhance safeguarding the rights of the disabled persons.Ranjan S. K. Nellimale Documenter August 2007 CONTENTS 01. INTRODUCTION01 02. BACKGROUND DETAILS01 Ã¢â¬ ¢ The aim of WDC is to Ã¢â¬ ¢ WDC Vision Ã¢â¬ ¢ Mission Ã¢â¬ ¢ WDC Target Group Ã¢â¬ ¢ Major areas of work Ã¢â¬ ¢ District Level WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s Fora attached to WDC WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s Network 03. OBJECTIVES OF THE DOCUMENTATION11 04. METHODOLOGY OF DOCUMENTATION11 05. THE METHODOLOGY USED FOR DOCUMENTATING11 06. COMMUNITY BASED REHABILITATION11 Ã¢â¬ ¢ What is CBR? 07. WOMENS DEVELOPMENT CENTER AND COMMUNITY BASED REHABILITATION13 Ã¢â¬ ¢ Vision of CBR Unit of WDC Ã¢â¬ ¢ Objectives Ã¢â¬ ¢ Activities A. Kandy Community Based Rehabilitation Centre15 Day care centre Ã¢â¬ ¢ Counselling Ã¢â¬ ¢ Speech and Language Therapy a. Speech class b. Speech Therapy c. Language Therapy Ã¢â¬ ¢ Physiotherapy unit Ã¢â¬ ¢ Special Education class Ã¢â¬ ¢ Behaviour Modification B. Voc ational Training Centre (VTC) Ampitiya23 C. Manikhinna Community Based Rehabilitation centre26 D. Matale Community Based Rehabilitation Centre28 E. Teldeniya Community Based Rehabilitation Centre29 F. Haragama Community Based Rehabilitation Centre31 G. Madolkale Community Based Rehabilitation Centre33 H. Ulapane Community Based Rehabilitation Centre34 I.Pothgoda Community Based Rehabilitation Centre36 J. Galpihilla Community Based Rehabilitation Centre38 K. Community Blind Rehabilitation program39 08. REMARKS 42 Ã¢â¬ ¢ Intervention Ã¢â¬ ¢ Rehabilitation Ã¢â¬ ¢ Prevention 09. CONCEPT OF COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT44 10. KEY LEARNING FROM THE DOCUMENTATION PROCESS 45 1. Impact on the disabled persons 2. Impact on Family living 3. Access to services and facilities 4. Impact on social relations 5. Capacity Building of Vocational Training 6. Access to loans for those with vocational Training 7. Community Awareness 8. Self Help Group formation 9.Parental Capacity Building 10. Advocacy 11. RE COMMENDATIONS49 12. ANNEXURES54 COMMUNITY BASED REHABILITATION PROGRAMME OF WOMENÃ¢â¬â¢S DEVELOPMENT CENTRE 01. INTRODUCTION The concept of Community Based Rehabilitation programme is that disabled people should have the right to a good life and fulfil their needs. The help they need should be available to them at a low cost. It should offer to them and their family a way that suits their usual way of living, whether in a village, a town or a city. They should have education like everybody else and there should not be any disparity.They should be able to take up the normal activities like jobs and earning their own living without discrimination and exploitation. They should be able to take full part in all the activities of their village, or town or city or within their families. The idea of CBR is that, even if people learn very slowly, or have problems seeing or hearing or, find it hard to move about, they should still be respected as being men and women, girls and boys. Nobody should look down on them, nor be treated any less than a normal person just because they have a disability. 2. BACKGROUND Women's Development Centre (WDC) is an organization established in 1987 and registered as an NGO in 1989. The aim of WDC is to: Help Women enhance their participation in Socio-Economic life and help them take up leadership roles in various capacities. WDC Vision: To create a society where women and children are actively involved, having equal opportunity to, access to, and control over resources and working in the area of advocacy and policy to their own betterment and of their families.Mission: Facilitate and create an environment to strengthen the position of women and children in society by addressing womenÃ¢â¬â¢s and childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s issues and community awareness, thereby reducing victimization improving opportunities for engaging in income generation activities and awareness to improve their lives with increased knowledge and through group support and ac tivities. WDC Target Group: WDCÃ¢â¬â¢s work involves women from disadvantaged communities but also expands to include youth and children from all ethnic and religious groupsÃ¢â¬â¢ predominantly in rural areas.Major areas of work: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Crisis Intervention Ã¢â¬ ¢ Community based Rehabilitation Ã¢â¬ ¢ Network with seven district fora and other organizations with similar aim and objectives. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Community development (health, community organizing, community awareness and working with schools) Ã¢â¬ ¢ Pre-schools and day care centres Ã¢â¬ ¢ Resource centre Ã¢â¬ ¢ Legal aid/counselling programme Ã¢â¬ ¢ Disaster intervention District Level WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s Fora attached to WDC WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s Network 03. OBJECTIVES OF THE DOCUMENTATION To explain the concept of the Community Based Rehabilitation (CBR) program as implemented by WDC. Ã¢â¬ ¢ How far has the CBR program brought positive impact to communities where it is implemented. Ã¢â¬ ¢ To identify where changes are required f or a more effective CBR programme. 04. METHODOLOGY OF DOCUMENTATION The Community Based Rehabilitation program (CBR) has been documented by using Descriptive method. The documenter used mostly interviews and observations to gather information. 05. THE METHODOLOGY USED FOR DOCUMENTING The initial discussion with Mrs.Pearl Stephen as the author and initiator of the program as well as other key individuals helped in developing the interviews and observation guide. The information gathered were summarized and analyzed to provide major leanings and conclusions. 06. COMMUNITY BASED REHABILITATION Community Based Rehabilitation approach is said to be suitable for developing countries with limited resources to provide wider coverage of services. The importance of CBR approach is the transfer of minimum rehabilitation skills and responsibility to minimally trained family members and other volunteers in the community.The last decade saw the growth of community based rehabilitation in many dev eloping countries, along with changes and adjustments in the concepts and practices related to this field especially in countries like Sri Lanka. What is CBR? Mrs. Pearl Stephen, Founder Director of WDC who initiated CBR, perceives that any intervention to disabled people is liberation for those who are the care takers of the most marginalised persons. In fact, it is the rationale for a womenÃ¢â¬â¢s organisation such as WDC to be involved in the issues of the disabled.According to her, it is a programme that safeguard the rights of the disabled persons changing their surroundings, including enabling the family and the community in this task. It is a sustainable process that utilises as much local resources and techniques as possible to intervene, rehabilitate and minimise occurrence of disabilities. Ã¢â¬Å"A strategy within community development for the rehabilitation, equalization of opportunities and social integration of all people with disabilitiesÃ¢â¬ (UN definition) Ã¢â¬ Å"CBR is a strategy for enhancing the quality of life of disabled people by improving service delivery, by providing more equitable pportunities and by promoting and protecting their human rightsÃ¢â¬ (E. Helander ). 07. WOMENÃ¢â¬â¢S DEVELOPMENT CENTER AND COMMUNITY BASED REHABILITATION The WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s Development Centre (WDC) is a local Non-Governmental Organization (NGO) based in Kandy. The aim of the organization is to promote womenÃ¢â¬â¢s status in society by building capacity, developing partnerships and supporting awareness on health, legal rights, gender leadership development crisis intervention and skills training, networking and action- research on womenÃ¢â¬â¢s issues.The WDC began by running a community health training program in collaboration with local medical officers of health. As the health volunteers gained the trust of many families and communities in which they were working, they learned of many disabled children who had received little, if, any, help. Many were hidden away in shame and fear, some even physically imprisoned in there homes. The parents were in desperate need of help and support in coping with the stresses and difficulties of caring for these children.Following requests from the parents, it was agreed that a rehabilitation programme be started in November 1990, with the children already attending the WDC centre in Kandy on two mornings in a week. Some of original health volunteers become the Ã¢â¬Ërehabilitation workersÃ¢â¬â¢ and their training was extended by attendance at paediatric, psychiatric and ENT clinics as well as short courses at a special school for hearing Ã¢â¬â impaired children. The programme was well attended and rapidly developed, with new centres opening in local villages in response to community requests.There are 10 community based rehabilitation (CBR) centres run by WDC in number of places such as, Ulapane, Manikhinna, Pothgoda, Madolkalele, theldeniya, Galphila, Matale, Ampitiya, Haragama and in Kandy. The village centres are in temples halls and other community premises. They function with the co-operation / support of the local community. These different centres work with hospitals, schools, department of education, the divisional secretariats and the various service departments within these secretariats. The programme taps a lot of local resources from parents, divisional secretariats, department of social services etc.Most of these departments have a lot of respect for the quality of service rendered by WDC unit and the rapport they are able to develop with the departments and the clients alike. Vision of CBR Unit of WDC: Create an environment where the person with special needs while enjoy equal rights and maximum benefits within the family and society. Objective: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Minimize conditions that lead to disabilities Ã¢â¬ ¢ Rehabilitate persons with disabilities while being in community Ã¢â¬ ¢ Advocate on issues related to disabilities of persons Activities: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Maintain community based rehabilitation centres Maintain special education units Ã¢â¬ ¢ Maintain vocational training centres for person with special needs Ã¢â¬ ¢ Implement community education programs Ã¢â¬ ¢ Develop and support networks with and for people with disabilities Ã¢â¬ ¢ Mainstream of work and issues of person with disabilities A. Kandy Community Based Rehabilitation Centre The Kandy CBR group currently functions as a separate unit close to the WDC main office. A total of 48 staff are spread over ten CBR centres. There are 10 Staff members rendering their support to the Kandy centre.In general, all of the centres whether in the urban areas like Kandy or other centres in rural areas, there are a basic set of services and activities rendered. Therefore, this document would not try to elaborate all these activities in all the centres but try to indicate some of the unique features of the different programmes. The centre in Kandy, in the sense, can be seen as the h ub and coordinating place. It is the training and orientation centre as well as assessment centre of many disabilities where a large number of clients from different parts of the island access their initials services and referrals.The babies and children attending the CBR programmes have wide range of disabilities like hearing and visual impaired, language disorders, learning difficulties, and behaviour problems, physical and mental disorders. There is lack of space for special education schools and units so the children will move from the centres to get special education. However, some of the children are having multiple difficulties which make such placement more difficult. There is a system to assist the very young and other children with difficulties.Those who come to seek the services of the WDC Kandy centre come from various parts of the island through different sources, such as through referrals from hospitals, doctors, hospital clinics, special education department, organiza tions and some times any one who has heard of this CBR program from a friend or relatives also bring their children or direct. Some of the services rendered by CBR Kandy centre is counselling, speech and language therapy, day care centre, visual program, physio-therapy and special education class. Day Care Centre: The Day Care Centre of the WDC CBR unit entertains children requiring Day care facilities for both WDC staff and others. The uniqueness of this centre is the ability to integrate both normal and children with special needs. Presently there are 18 children (both girls and boys) in the pre school age in this day care centre. Two of the children are from crisis intervention centre of WDC at Haragama which serves women and young girls who have faced violence. Shabana is a 6 years old child having a physical disability in her hand, arly she got physiotherapy treatment from the centre and now she receives normal pre school education. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Counselling: Counselling is an a inte ractive process conjoining the counselee who need assistance and the counsellor who is trained and educated to give this assistance, the counsellor can initiate and maintain the interactive process if he/she communicates feelings of spontaneity and warmth tolerance, respect and sincerity. One of the main work done by CBR Kandy unit is providing counselling to the parents and the children with disabilities.When the parents approach the organization for help, the first thing that the CBR counsellors do is a detailed assessment regarding the problems of child and the related causes by using formats developed by them. In this process the CBR counsellors try to help the parents to clarify the problem and the way how to build the helping process. In the end of this process the counsellors will direct the parents towards next step and to the type of service required. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Speech and Language Therapy: The main objective of this unit is to help children in improving Speech and Language sk ills. a.Speech class: Speech class are conducted for children who are having speech difficulties such as stammering, autistic, Down syndrome etc. it is an individual effort with each child. These children are referred by schools and hospitals. The children go through initial assessment while being in the speech class. Those who require intense rehabilitation are identified and provided with further intervention. After the initial assessments and corrective measurers, these children are referred to special education units and followed up on a monthly assessment basis. Some children are also followed up at homes during home visits . Speech Therapy: Those who are supported through speech therapy are those with more intense speaking disabilities such as those who have difficulties with voice and exeursing the tongue. Sometimes such intervention require around one year of treatment process. c. Language Therapy: Language therapy is often for the children who have extreme difficulties in s peaking such as deaf children. Such children are assessed and intervened to improve sounds, sign language etc. The deaf children in particular are referred to the deaf school in Dodanwala to enable them to continue their school career.Even while the children enter the deaf school, they are still followed up until they reach a level of improvement. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Physiotherapy unit: The Physiotherapy unit plays a vital role to improve the functional ability of children with physical disabilities. This unit performs a number of important services such as assessment of the level of functional ability of the children, perform rehabilitative exercise on children, education and trains parents on exercises, nutritional and health requirements of children to improve these condition.The other function of the unit is also to improve appropriate and affordable rehabilitative devices that could also be turned out in the rural homes. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Special Education class: The children who come to the special education unit are referred by schools or these who are on the verge of dropping out of schools due to learning difficulties. These are children who require special attention or not able to cope in class room situations. Special education class provide the children with learning difficulties to over come their problem and to develop the knowledge.It provides the children to understand the weakness they have and to get the help of the staff of the centre. The staff have developed a good relationship with the children and it helps most students to improve. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Behaviour Modification: This unit is one place where children who have extreme behaviour difficulties such as those who are hyperactive or are not able to concentrate. They are received to a special unit where they are provided with guidance and unique activities to help them sit in a place, improve concentration, improve working together, learn patience, etc.After these, children learn to control themselves, they are moved to other section for rehabilitative exercises. B. Vocational Training Centre (VTC) Ampitiya The aim of the vocational centre of CBR is to assist children with special abilities to develop their skills to enhance their dignity by helping them to explore and learn about their inherent skills and develop them further to enable productive and more independent living. The children have special talents. After their education, if they are not supported to enhance, they may be lost while they enter the lager society.This is especially true for the children with mental and physical disability. They normally do not get sufficient assistance from government. To cope up with this situation and to reduce the problems they face, in 1999 WDC started the Vocational Training Centre (VTC) within the CBR. In the beginning VTC started with 24 students and given them training in carpet making, envelopes, paper bags and in carpentry. The Ampitiya centre belongs to the (government) department of social s erves and WDC was requested to run this centre.As WDC maintain very good rapport with government departments but lacks required resources, this request was considered timely and opportune. This centre has three units for residential care, vocational training and school for special education. Mostly, the vocational trainings are for those children who pass out from various rehabilitation centres and have no other future prospects. At present, there are around 20 children both females and male children learning various skills, not only at the Ampitiya centre but also in other community level rehabilitation centres.The type of vocational training are Carpentry, Eakle broom production, Candle production, Cement flower pots making, Handloom, Sewing/rug Ã¢â¬â making, Fabric/Pottery paint, Envelop making, Paper bag making, Home gardening, Greeting cards, Stocki-net flower making and Patch work. It must be mentioned that it is not easy to train children with disabilities with certain phy sical mental disabilities. The teachers require patience and concentration all the time especially when they are training to use various tools. While some products can be promoted to competitive markets, this is not always possible.Some children take a very long time to learn the skills but some perhaps cannot go beyond making rugs. Some of the trainees who train the children themselves have been trained by the VTC As part of network building the teachers of VTC also visit Digana rehabilitation hospital for spinal injuries to give vocational training for patients. This training while it goes as part of rehabilitative exercises, also provides a good training to start own employment in their houses. Further staff of Digana hospital says that those training also have tremendous psychosocial impact on the patients.There are many programmes conducted in collaboration with the government organizations and most of the time the VTC receive invitations /requests to participate in their progr ammes. Specially sports events and other competitions. It really help student to appreciate their own capacities. In the year of 2007, 3 students were selected from Amptiya VTC to represent Sri Lanka for Para Olympics in china. C. Manikhinna Community Based Rehabilitation Centre Manikhinna centre was started in the year of 1992. During the 14 year period, it has provided a variety of services to the community.Currently the centre is located at the Ganadevi kovila, old temple and provides the services to the children with disability as well as to the community. The main aim of the centre is to use the available resource in the community and use them for the development of socially handicapped people. Mainly this centre carries out the process to rehabilitate mentally and physically challenged children. Counselling, speech therapy, mentally retarded (MR) class, vocational training and Physiotherapy are the major activities carried out in this centreThe centre maintains good relationsh ip with the temple and the local politicians and the benefit of good rapport improves their service to the community. Manikhinna Community Based Rehabilitation centre has provided many services to the community. The program has enabled the community to build some houses and toilets among the needy families. Parents too get self employment training in order to make the family financially stable. The centre strongly believe to make a better environment for the child. Making the family self employed help the child considerably in the rehabilitation process.The training to parents on self employment further helps to integrate the children with disabilities within family and community. So many changes have also occurred in the community sine the CBR program began in this community. Among them is the awareness of disabilities that has taken place among the community and community under stand this kind of children require special attention and care. When the Manikhinna centre initially sta rted, the staff visited many communities. In the process they also identified villages classed as Ã¢â¬ËLow casteÃ¢â¬â¢, and those Ã¢â¬Ëworking with devilsÃ¢â¬â¢. hese village were normally neglected by other villages, and government officers never visited them nor did the temple accept their alms. However, when the CBR staff started to visit them, inviting the priests and government officers to the CBR centre, the situation started gradually changing. Sudeep is a 16 year old boy having learning difficulties. According to the doctors he is a mentally retarded child. He come from a poor family and his father left him and the family. CBR helped his mother to build a house because they do not have proper shelter. Currently this child is attending Speech and Language Therapy classes in the CBR centre.It is interesting to note that this child manages to read and write to some extent. When the documenter asked Sudeep whether he could visit his newly built house he was overjoyed. Wi th outmost interest Sudeep help the documenter to visit his house and get information about his village. The development that has taken place in this child is important to the society as well as for the childÃ¢â¬â¢s own future. D. Matale Community Based Rehabilitation Centre Matale Community Based Rehabilitation Centre was started in the year 2000 and currently it is situated at Hunukate Alokaramya Temple.The service rendered by the staff of this centre are recognized by the people and they give their fullest support to the CBR program. There are 75 children currently getting the services from this centre. It carries out the rehabilitation activities for mentally and physically challenged children. It provides Counselling, speech therapy, MR class, self employment training and Physiotherapy. Due to ignorance and lack of awareness most of the community people face many problem. The CBR centre has taken steps to conduct awareness programs to the community, such as the orthopaedic ca mp conducted by the Ã¢â¬ËCentre for HandicapÃ¢â¬â¢ organization.It is a good example of how the CBR unite coordinate with other organizations to improve the services for the people. Anther awareness program is on nutrition. It is an important program for the community as most of the parents and children do not have proper nutrition. Good nutrition has been identified as one of the most important aspects to minimize disability. Documenter got the opportunity to speak with the midwife of the community and learned how the CBR program benefited the lives of people. According to her earlier there was no awareness among the people about the disabilities and they totally neglected those people with disabilities.But when the CBR staff started to work with the people they became aware about the problem and sought the help of the CBR centre. She also mentioned that the staff are able to build a good rapport with people and provide a lot of support to those who approach them. Amila Kumara is a student doing his advance level (A/L) this year. His mother is working abroad and his father is dead. At the time he approached the CBR program, he was totally neglected by his family members due to his physical disability. He has difficulty to walk.Due to this difficulty he did not attend the A/L classes. But with the support of the CBR centre he has improved a lot and now he can walk by himself. He got so much of motivation from the CBR staff and support that encouraged him to do his A/L. He will sit for the examination this year. He is so happy about the CBR program and he says that because of this program his life has changed. E. Teldeniya Community Based Rehabilitation centre Teldeniya centre was started in the year of 2004. Currently the centre is lacated in the Teldeniya primary school.With the limited space this centre is functioning well and provids much services to the community. In this centre Counselling, speech therapy, MR class, self employment training and Physio therapy programs are available for the community. As the centre is located within the school premises, it has developed a strong relationship with the school programs and work closely with the school to provide better services. This centre also conducts awareness programmes and organized women's groups. This centre too provides training on self employment. Tailoring class seem popular.There is a teacher employed by Government handling this class for the parents of these children. In this centre staff have been able to create a good environment with government officials as well as other top level officials in order to provide better service to the community. Documenter got an opportunity to speak with the school principal and learn how the CBR program fulfils the needs of the community. According to him, prior to the program there were no support to the children with mental and physical disabilities, they where totally neglected within the schools as well as in the community.The CBR programme provided these children with disabilities an opportunity to come out of their difficult situation. According to the principal earlier there was no one to help the children with leaning and behavioural difficulties in their education in the school. Teachers were disinterested in such children as they where more interested to help the able children. After the rehabilitation programme was started, we are now able to send these children to this centre and now I am happy to see the improvement of these children due to the help they got form this program. Some of the children we sent to this centre have come back and are now studying with normal children, It is a joy nice to see how they have changeÃ¢â¬ . Deshika Kolabaga is a 6 year old child having much difficulty in her behaviour pattern. Since 3 years she is attending the CBR centre and gets speech therapy and special education support. According to her mother Deshika underwent so much of difficulty with in the family due to her ways of behaviour. All her family members neglected and reject her. But since she started to attend the CBR program she has remarkably improved.She has been able to get over most of her behaviour problems, she is now able to do her work normally and manage to win every one hearts in the family. The family members now understand that she has to get special care and attention from the family. DeshekaÃ¢â¬â¢s mother is so happy about the staff of the organization and says that it is due to their care and support that her child has improved and she is thankful for them. F. Haragama Community Based Rehabilitation centre Haragama centre was started in the year of 2004, since then there have been so much of changes in the community because of the CBR program.It has given lot of services to the community for the upliftment of children with disabilities. Currently the centre is located close to the WDC Crisis centre. Like other CBR centres this centre too caries out the duties of reh abilitating mentally and physically challenged children. It provides Counselling, speech therapy, MR classes, self employment training and Physiotherapy. Most of the parents of children who come to the centre said that prior to bringing their children to the centre, they faced many difficulties due to lack of awareness on how to handle the children.But with the CBR programme, life has become much easier. It has also facilitated looking at the problems as a community. The parents of these children are very poor and therefore the CBR programme also help the mothers through skills training on basket making etc. It is expected that after this training the mothers will engage themselves in self employment. The documenter had the opportunity to speak with a group of basket-making women in the centre, they were so happy and willingly came forward to explain how and what kind of service they get from WDC as an organization.The mothers explained that prior to coming to the CBR program, they faced much hardships and their children experienced many difficulties in learning, behavioural problems, etc due to the disabilities. However the mothers are very happy about the improvement that they see in their children. They also feel relieved due to this improvement. The mothers also appreciate the training they received to work with their children to participate in the rehabilitation process of their children. G. Madolkale Community Based Rehabilitation centre This centre was started in the year 2000.The program in particular supports the disabled children in the plantation sector. Currently the centre is located close to Paramsehwara Tamil College Madolkale, and looks after around 24children. Because this centre is located in close proximity to plantation sector, most of the children come from families working in plantation sector. Serving the plantation itself is a unique experience for the WDC/CBR unit, as there are very few programs implemented to serve the estate sector. Compared to all other projects of WDC/CBR unit, the parents of most children have a very low level of literacy.In general, though it is a community living close to each other, it is not a close community that supports one another. Since both parents go to work, the children with disabilities and practically the mothers who are burdened with many functions face a lot of difficulties. Initially the staff also found it difficult to located children. It was also difficult to make parents understand why it is important to pay special attention to children with disabilities. Gradually the programme has taken root in the community. The parents, teachers and children are now able to understand its importance.Because the school community and children appreciate the program, the organization enjoys good reputation. There are 24 children who attend speech class, speech therapy, MR class, and self employment training. Other than this, 2 families receive the help of WDC. One parent was helped to cement the floor of their house while another received tea plants to initiate an income generation activity. As the staff identified the problems of low nutrition being low, they also conducted training and education session on nutritionThe documenter had the opportunity to speak with some of children who were engaged in sewing handkerchiefs. These were children with learning difficulties as well as physical disabilities. According to them they are happy now because they get the opportunity to learn some useful things for their future and these children really feel more secure due to the CBR program. There are other skills training activities such as bag making, making envelopes and candles, etc. H. Ulapane Community Based Rehabilitation centre Ulapane centre was started in 1995.During the 17 year period it has given many services to the community to help through many development activities. Currently the centre is located in at the Ulapane Maha Vidyalaya and providing the services to the children through the special education unit. In my view, compared to other centres, Ulapane is a difficult terrain to work due to hilly slopes. The area that the staff are required to cover is wide. Children are brought to this centre from very faraway places. The staff also require to travel far to make home visits.There are also many physically disabled children that the parents are unable to bring to the centre on a routine basis. Therefore, the staff are required to make much effort to visit all of them despite transportation difficulties in the area. Also the resources are very limited Like other centres it mainly carries out the process of rehabilitation of mentally and physically challenge children. It gives Counselling, speech therapy, MR class, vocational training and Physiotherapy. This centre has built a good reputation among the government officers and the social welfare organizations. According to the school Principal, the CBR program has created so much of awar eness about disabilities in the community that it has become easy to identify disabilities among the children. Initially people did not have an understanding what this center was doing for children with disabilities but, with time, they have gained understanding and started to help the school in ways they could. He said Ã¢â¬Å"It is a privilege, as a Principal, for me to take part in this programÃ¢â¬ . Listening to the Principal it was clear to me that he is satisfied with the CBR program and appreciates the work they are doing.The change in awareness and the quality of life of children are remarkable. The staff of the Ulapane unit also indicated that apart from the services they render to the children, the mothers of the children also have become members of a women's forum. Through this forum, the mothers get training and support to develop income-generation towards economic empowerment. Ashma is a girl having learning difficulties. She has been dropped out from two schools and n ever given enough support and guidance for her education. She has been totally neglected from the school and it created some confusion and difficulties for her.When her father started to take her in to the CBR program she started showing improvement in her education and her father is vary happy about her development. According to her father she is getting proper care and support for her education due to which she is motivated and shows interest in studies. The Father said now he could understand why she was not able to study well in the schools, that it was due to the lack of capabilities of the schools teachers to understand slow learning. When such children started attending school and fall into the wrong and incapable hands of teachers, the school careers of children are ruined.Such children then become isolated and ashamed. They are branded as those who cannot study, rather than saying that they were in the hands of incapable teachers. From the above case-study, it is clear that the kind of service provided to the community become more important and indeed it create lot of awareness about disabilities and what kind of services are available for them. I. Pothgoda Community Based Rehabilitation Centre This centre is located at Pothgoda Rajasinha Vidyalaya as a special unit. This unit started to work in the community since 2002.The importance of this unit is mainly to concentrate to bring behavioural changes and help slow learning children to get proper support through education. The special emphasis of this unite is to provide special education to the children who are having learning difficulties due to M/R. It should be noted that not only children with MR face difficulties of being misunderstood, the parents too face difficulties and are saddened by the fact that they are not able to understand their children. The parents of these children are engaged in cultivation as their main occupation and most of the parents are poorly literate.This has an impact on the development of the children. Children with disabilities normally get isolated from the families and get neglected. They may not receive proper care and support. Therefore, the services of the CBR unit become important to develop the sensitivity of the family towards children with disabilities, so that proper attention could be paid to children. From the perspective of the children, when children are not understood and proper attention paid by the school, most children end up as drop outs from schools. Therefore, such units are playing an important role to lift the education level of children.They are able to make improvements and get back to the normal education after they gain improvement. The staff also shared that in families where there are children with disabilities, the families also have many conflicts that make the life of children extremely difficult. The staff understanding this situation, also provides counselling. According to the principal, this unit has had major i mpact on the community and to lift the standard of education of the children with disabilities. Recently, the unit also conducted an awareness program to the school teachers on depression. Another awareness programme for the community was on nutrition.Such programmes have provided many benefits for the children and their families. He noted with satisfaction that some children have been able to get back their normal class after improvement. J. Galpihilla Community Based Rehabilitation centre Galpihilla Centre has been started 1998 and currently located at the Galpihilla primary school. The function of this unit is to provide special education to the children who have been identified to have learning disabilities. Most of the children in the unit have multiple difficulties and shown improvement with CBR intervention. The children who come to this centre come from the nearby community.As has been explained, in relation to other centres, it needs to be reiterated the hapless situation o f the children with disabilities where there is no understanding how to handle and care for such children. According to the principal most families in the community are poor and this poverty situation directly affects children with disabilities. With the intervention of the CBR on the lives of children to develop their level of independence, it has helped to free the time of the parents which adds to their awareness and their co-operation in this regard. Rumasha Abeyanaike was born in 1990 with physical disabilities.Her father is a labourer. His earnings are not enough to meet the needs of family. In 1992 she came to the special unit for treatment. Because of her physical disabilities she was not able to move freely. With the help and support of the centre she gained control over her limbs and posture. With the exercises, by the CBR staff and at home by her parents, within about 4 years she was able to sit. When she was able to control her limbs, she was trained to use thread frames to develop skills. She excelled in both education and in making lace work. Over the years she also learned to work with out help.All these achievements have made her family very happy. K. Community visual Rehabilitation program Community visual Rehabilitation program is one among the important activities carried out under CBR program. It mainly concentrates on the blind or the people who have difficulties in their vision. Currently this program functions as a separate unit under CBR program. This program was introduced in 2001. Because of a good network system that WDC has developed they received an invitation from an organization based in the south of Sri Lanka to send three volunteers for a training program on blindness.After this training program was over, the 3 volunteers trained other staff in the WDC. A study that was subsequently conducted around Kandy, identified 128 persons with vision difficulties. Identification of such a large number of persons from all ages with vision difficulties is an eye opener to the divisional secretariat as the general perception was that blindness is not a problem in Kandy. The aim of this program is to deviate from a purely clinical model of intervention.Therefore, the intervention contains a package of service of screening, awareness on prevention of blindness or to make those with vision difficulties independent and productive; counselling to those affected and their family members; reducing poverty through involvement in income generation activities etc. While all 128 persons were referred for medical support, initially the programme identified 4 people for holistic care intervention. The expansion of the programme firstly concentrated in the Gangawata Korale divisional secretariat for 23 persons and later to Pathahewaheta and then to Harispathuwa divisions.In 2004, the number of clients in this programme increased to 43 persons. The clients feel that since they participate in the rehabilitation programme, they receiv ed more respect from the family members, earn as well as, save money, and it has contributed to improve the quality of their lives As part of the programme, the blind people underwent special training and counselling programme like how to do their day-to-day activities; how to use the white cane; and the ways of earn a living. Because of this program, some are engaged in small seale trade such as selling cloths, tea, etc, while some make paper bags, lamp wicks, joss sticks, etc.Kusumawati is a middle-aged lady with vision problem. When the Community visual Rehabilitation program reached her, she was living with her sister and was dependent on her. Once she got sufficiently rehabilitated, she started working in a near by joss sticks factory. However she did not receive sufficient salary. The CBR staff helped her to manufacture joss sticks in her house. She was able to earn and save money from her business, and build her own house and started to live on her own. Now she cooks her own meals and does her day to day activities by herself. From the financial ssistance she gets from the government and with the income generated from her small business, she is able to live happily. Above case study a good example of how a Community Blind Rehabilitation program could help the lives of needy people. There are many social welfare organizations in and round Kandy district but the only organization giving support to blind people to improve mobility and to start self employment is Women's Development Centre (WDC). Joss Sticks making Goat rearing 08. REMARKS There is sufficient evidence that the CBR programme makes a big difference in the lives of the children with disabilities and their families.Most of the children in the CBR program come from the poorer sector which itself is a big a hindrance for development, as children tend to lack the basic needs that are vitally important. The programme has proven its viability to improve the quality of life. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Intervention: It is evident from many responses, that the CBR staff are experienced and skilled than most others like teachers to make good assessments of client to identify the condition of the children with disabilities. , whether they come from schools or community. They are able to be holistic in their assessments.They are also better able to build good rapport and win confidence of the children, their families and others such as school teachers, principals etc. Their level of professionalism and also the way they receive other support in the assessment enables them to develop more effective rehabilitation plan that is holistic. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Rehabilitation: Rehabilitation is the most important process in CBR programme. It creates opportunity for the children with difficulties to receive right intervention and rehabilitation to overcome their problems with the help of the staff in the CBR program.There is a wide range of difficulties which are visible, with children like the physical disability, learn ing difficulties, behaviour problems, blind, profound deafness, hydrocephalous, down syndrome, multiple disabilities, speech problem, autistic and mental retardation. In the CBR programme they carry out activities to help the children to over come their problems and through this process they are rehabilitated. The activities such as Counselling, speech therapy, MR class, vocational training, special education class, awareness programs and Physiotherapy.It is remarkable to see how the staffs of the CBR program work closely with the children as well as with the parents to fulfil the task to improve the status of children and create an environment for the personal development and make rehabilitation process efficient. What is also interesting is that of available facility for those who get sufficiently rehabilitated, to follow vocational training to make their future independent and skilled, with life-long impact. The vocational training helps them to be employed or to start their own business with the support of their family members. Prevention: although it not possible to totally eradicate people becoming disabled, the CBR program carries out a number of programs to minimize people becoming disabled. While some of them are to raise awareness among the communities such as on intake of proper nutrition, discouraging marriages among blood relations, other are to eradicate poverty, poverty being the root cause for many evils including disablement. Further, the programme also helps marginalized community to learn various services such as health, come to receive rubella or other referrals or even making education more easily available to marginalized. 9. CONCEPT OF COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT The CBR approach is a holistic process spanning from individual development, continuing through to community. The process can be summarized in the following manner emanating fram the individual ` Speaking about a person with disabilities, he/she is a person with many problems/ difficu lties from within and outside. So the CBR process renders services to solve the disabilities within and this makes the rehabilitation process more effective. When the mind of the person becomes stable and strong, it leads to the improvement of the body conditions.It then leads to develop the spirituality of a person. It is clear when a person develops ones spirituality it leads to the development of his/her social status. All these processes together with other support, then leads to economic improvement. When the rehabilitation of a person is achieved, the process does not end there. It then leads to have positive impact on the community. Rehabilitation process should develop like a scale and it will be a continuous process. 10. KEY LEARNING FROM THE DOCUMENTATION PROCESSAs a documenter, in this section, I wish to present my overall impressions regarding the CBR programme. In overall performance, there are many positive outcome and impacts as a result of the CBR programme. 1. Impac t on the disabled persons: There is an observable change in the quality of life of the children and adults with disabilities as they get enrolled with the programme. They improve in mobility, coordinating limbs, enable continuation of education, improve in communication etc. ost of all, it enhances their dignity transforming them from a dependent, helpless person to an a independent person with abilities. Therefore, the process promotes individuals to become more independent and productive. Engagement on vocational training is a good example of improvement towards economic independence. For creating this impact, the skills of the staff, their commitment, rehabilitation techniques and in particular the social counselling process, have found to be important. 2. Impact on Family living: Within the family, the disabled persons have gained more recognition and acceptance.There is also marked improvement in the sensitivity of family members towards them and therefore, the disabled persons have been able to get appropriate support from the family members. Instead of the dependant persons that were there before, with CBR intervention, the disabled persons are able to contribute to the house-hold chores or in some instances, contribute economically. By this contributions they make, some of the family members who were earlier trapped in to care giving roles, have been freed to become productive by themselves.It is notable in particular, how the mothers have been made free to a large extent. However, it must also be mentioned here that during the initial period of rehabilitation, the work of the mothers also increase tremendously. This extra commitment on their part has not been without rich reward. 3. Access to services and facilities: There is more recognition for the disabled person within the various services such as health, education, resource provision by the divisional secretariats etc.It also has improved the system of providing the referral the much needed atten tion from the service sector. 4. Impact on social relations: In general, there is increased awareness among communities regarding disability situations and therefore the need for community members to work together. While there is more recognition for the disabled persons within the family, especially parents have come together to discuss common issues regarding the disabled children. In the CBR centres, there is a marked contribution by parents together as a community to make the programme a success.Particularly in one community, the programme also helped to unify a socially isolated community. 5. Prevention of Disabilities: Promoting the use of Rubella vaccine, improved nutrition through awareness and training on use of low-cost and natural foods, awareness on compatible marriages etc are seen as specific contribution of the programme. Apart from the above, the following are also identified as areas where there needs to be further improvement: 6. Capacity Building of Vocational Tra ining: The present vocational training that are done especially in the rural centres, has a greater otential for improvement in terms of concept and technical inputs. Developing of capacity of teachers handling this work is important. Further, they also require knowledge and skills to make links to markets and the demands. 7. Access to loans for those with vocational Training: At present, WDC CBR programme provides a lump sum amount to those graduating from the VT. What is not clear is the after-support to family as a unit such as access to loans and follow-up in the development of the income generating activity to a viable enterprise. 8.Community Awareness: It is observed that the greater emphasis of the CBR is on the families directly involved in the programme. This the documenter sees as a limitation. Involvement of the community as a whole will create a bigger and sustainable impact. 9. Self Help Group formation: Strong Self-Help groups in the communities where the CBR programme is implemented is considered an asset as it is not only able to provide stability, but also provide economic support involving both the family members of CBR and other members in the community.One other ability of a self help group is also its ability to tap resources within and outside community. 10. Parental Capacity Building: It is noticed that for any emergency or a need, look up to the staff of CBR to provide leadership. Through community capacity building programme, while it can reduce the work load of staff, it could also provide sustainability to the programme. Therefore, it is desirable that within the programme, capacity building of staff be treated as a specific focus to achieve the set objectives of the programme. 1. Advocacy: There are many issues for which advocacy are required. It is unclear on WDC role on policy advocacy. Two specific areas that has paused a challenge are the effort to do away with the special education units and the other is the poor knowledge of p arents and the clients on the rights for services and facilities for the disabled persons. 12. Linking community Development and Networking: The link between the efforts of the CBR with the community development and Networking which are key direction of WDC dose not surface clearly.Therefore, this coherence of the programme requires further enhancement as finally, goal achievement in communities are common. 11. RECOMMENDATIONS The current CBR programme has a big impact on the lives of the disabled people and make the way for the social development. It is indeed a programme with lot of potential. However there are still areas with the CBR program, the staff can look, further father develop and improve the standard of the community based rehabilitation process. 01) Developing the capacity of the staff in Assessing local needs and resource identifications:There is no one model of rehabilitation service that will suit all circumstances based on local situation. What is needed is a needs -based model for the different circumstances. Some early programmes of CBR were not successful because they did not undertake any research on the perception/needs of the target population, or even considered the availability of local resources. Although there has been improvement in this, the resource identification can be further harnessed. Additionally, there is much room for research based model development.While WDC staffs do understand the cultural barriers and surrounding, the disabled persons, their families and even how such children are hidden due to many different reasons, it is certainly beneficial to conduct in depth study to explore information in order to develop local models of intervention in a more accurate way. In this servies, information within the family systems, factors that influence marginalization of disabled person from participating in social activities, career aspiration by the disabled person, etc. should receive critically sharp focus. 02) Disability re lated Policies, and Programs and Preventive Measures:It is apparent that the WDC staff contributes much in the intervention, prevention and rehabilitation process of the disabled and over the years there is both qualitative and quantitative improvement in their work. This does not mean that there is no room for further improvement. The documenter observes that the knowledge of WDC staff in relation to the policies, programmes and preventive measurers that is available in the larger environment, including in the international arena would help in raising the awareness of communication and in motivating the communities more to wards advocacy.3) Building up resource centre for CBR: It is important to maintain an information centre or resource centre to provide the latest information about community based rehabilitation programs in different parts of the world and its new findings for the development to build or improve the capacity of the staff. There is also a need to upgrade the knowl edge of CBR staff in terms of latest development in the field of disability through personal enhancement as well as having access to IT information. Family Help Line: It is observed that the families of the disabled children supported by WDC mostly live in remote areas with minimum access to infrastructure such as transportation etc. Such families can also be identified as multi-deficit families with poverty, voieance, marginalization etc. Due to remoteness of location of the families, for staff to visit with limited resources is seen as difficult. A family Ã¢â¬â help line is therefore suggested to be developed when such families could reach at time of needs especially for legal, counselling and referral support, as such a system to access will support as an initial measure.This may be a neighbourhood women's group, knowledge of professionals help with close proximity etc. This may work as a quick and effective linkage between community and the CBR program. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Support Groups : It is observed that most of the families of the disabled children are accessing the CBR centres for every need related to their family needs, thes creating an a opportunity to make the families totally dependaed on CBR program. So in the long run this is not good to reach the CBR objectives. Therefore, formation of Support groups in their communities is strongly recommended.Support groups enable individuals with disabilities and their families to exchange ideas where both positive and negative views can be expressed. It also provides a capacity within the community in emergency situations which support groups can provide. ? Hope ? Information ? Friendship ? Sharing ? Problem-solving ? Personal growth ? Advocacy 04) Forming neighbour hood Groups: It can consist of 10 to 20 members in neighbouring villages near to CBR centres having homogeneity in social status, sex, income, occupation, disabilities. It is the basic organization of poor and the marginalized formed and working at the grassroots level.It is a group that can take responsibilities in the issues where CBR program is functioning. It will be a great chance to build up a strong community relationship to reach disabled people in all communities. 05) Awareness programs: Although CBR programme conducts many awareness programs to the community, it is important to conduct awareness programs to increase the knowledge and to build a strong support system. It provides a foundation where the CBR programs can be implemented more effectively with the help of the community. The awareness program can cover the flowing anticipated outcomes Local leaders have increase awareness and their capacity to make changes in their community and the values to organise local people to take positive steps to support the rehabilitation of disabled people.Ã¢â¬ ¢ Local people have to increased their sensitivity towards the disabilities and their vulnerabilities. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Local people have greater confidence in their own ability to make appropriate changes as they can to promote community based support to the people with disabilities. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Effective and ongoing community organization and action on safe-guards rights of the disabled. Improved local services and facilities in education, health, sanitation which have a big impact on the disabled children. Ã¢â¬ ¢ To develop educated and confident people to take and speak of the issues related to self help measures. 06) Training of the CBR staffs: Efficient training of the newly appointed staff in the CBR program in order to have a positive out come in whole program. It is suggested that the staff get training in every aspects of rehabilitation care in the main Kandy centre, by being able to spend certain amount of time in every unit till they are exposed and skilled.