Wednesday, December 25, 2019

Psychological Effect Of Drug Abuse - 1782 Words

Drug abuse is the consumption of any natural or synthetic substance or drug in an unapproved quantity for increased performance and enhancement. Most people abuse drugs because they want to gain the psychological effect with methods neither approved nor supervised by medical professionals. (Med India, Network for Health, n.d.) Drug Addiction is when drug abuse becomes a compulsion for maintaining psychological and emotional balance. Drugs decompose the basic structure of a whole society, by weakening families, reducing human productivity, corrupting governments, and demolding law respecting citizens. (Med India, Network for Health, n.d.) According to Med India, â€Å"The trafficking of illicit drugs and hallucinogens is the largest illegal business in the world accounting for about 8% of international trade, amounting to about $400 billion annually† (Med India, Network for Health, n.d.). Drugs decompose a whole society Psychological Effects of Drug Abuse Stress: Many people use drugs because they feel as if it would make them relax and forget about all their issues that stress them up. However, it is the opposite. Once the euphoric feeling they get from the drug is over, they go back to being stressed and depressed. Long-term use of drugs can cause a deep impact on the way one’s brain works, and that can lead to augmented anxiety and stress. (Med India, Network for Health, n.d.) Anxiety and Depression: Anxiety is when one feels worried or nervous about an event that has happenedShow MoreRelatedIntroduction . Cannabis Is The Most Commonly Used Illegal1443 Words   |  6 Pagescommonly used illegal drug that is used world wide with an estimation of 125-203 million users in 2009 (Degenhardt Hall 2012). Cannabis misuse causes adverse effects and leads to addiction if consumed continuously ( ). Substance abuse leads to health effects and also becomes expensive for governments hence the need to endeavour to try and sort out issues that affect it ( ). There is clear-cut evidence in the literature which illuminates the physiological aspects and psychological explanations of substanceRead MoreSubstance Abuse And Addiction : A Meta Analysis1711 Words   |  7 Pagespsychologically. When reformed, dependency settles in where abuser may have trouble living everyday life without substance sustaining abuser to tolerate the remainder of the day. In the journal article D eficits in Behavioral Inhibition in Substance Abuse and Addiction: A meta-analysis authors Smith, Mattick, Jamadar, Iredale stated â€Å"The results are generally consistent with the view that substance use disorders and addictionlike behavioral disorders are associated with impairments in inhibitory controlRead MoreThe Psychological Effects Of Adolescent Substance Abuse1469 Words   |  6 PagesAdolescent substance abuse is one of the largest issues faced by our society today. According to, nearly 50% of all high school seniors have abused some form of illicit substance and according to National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism nearly 70% of 18 year olds have at the least tried alcohol. Many more adolescents are trying, and getting addicted to, drugs every year. In my opinion this is one of the most critical issues that we have to address as a society. Summary Response:Read MoreNegative Impact Of Postpartum Depression1413 Words   |  6 Pageson Child Abuse Introduction: This psychological and behavioral study will analyze the impact of postpartum depression on women and the problem of child abuse related to this condition. Case studies find the circumstances of postpartum depression in women is directly related to the issue of previous child abuse and PTSD that have a negative impact on the newborn child. These factors define a significant correlation with postpartum depression in 1 out 9 women and later problems of abuse between motherRead MoreSubstance Abuse And Its Effects On The United States1050 Words   |  5 Pagesthe 19th century is when the active substances in drugs were found. Many of these substances were given over the counter and weren t regulated, which meant that people could easily obtain substances such as morphine, cocaine, landuam, and many others. During the early 1900s, an estimate of about 250,000 people were abusing a substance within the United States. Substance abuse is a serious problem which can affect one s physical an d psychological capabilities, their relationships, and also theirRead MoreDrug Profile Paper1105 Words   |  5 PagesDrug Profile Paper University of Phoenix PSY/425 March 22th, 2012 Drug Profile Paper This paper will illustrate several aspects of how drugs affect our lives. Addiction philosophies including the psychology and physiology will be explained in an attempt to describe how drugs affect our bodies both physically and mentally. Secondly, different drug categories types will be covered including: stimulants, depressants, narcotics, hallucinogens, and cannabis. Each of these categories has differentRead MoreSubstance Abuse: Crisis Intervention1352 Words   |  5 PagesSubstance abuse: Crisis intervention To the outsider, the lives of substance abusers often look like a series of crises waiting to happen. Often, the extent to which substance abuse is causing devastation in the life of the sufferer is more manifest to outsiders such as friends or relatives than the abuser him or herself. Crises relating to substance abuse may be biologically-related (such as a medical crisis brought about by abuse); legally related (a conviction for abusing an illegal drug, drug-dealingRead MorePsychological Impact On Substance Abuse Prevention1164 Words   |  5 PagesPsychological Impact According to Federal Center for Substance Abuse Prevention, women are the fastest-growing segment for substance abuse in the United States. About 2.7 million women in the United States abuse drugs or alcohol. Women typically enter rehab sooner than men, but they have more psychological distress, and are more likely to suffer from a mood or anxiety disorder (Liff, 2012). Most research on gender-based differences in addiction treatment has focused on organizational issues (suchRead MoreDrug Addiction- Physical vs. Psychological1334 Words   |  6 PagesProfessor Taylor Drugs and Drug Policy 28 April 2011 Drug Addiction—Physical vs. Psychological   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Research shows that an individual progresses from using drugs/substances, to being addicted to a drug/substance. This relationship with drugs (either legal or illegal) is complex because specific patterns of progression vary greatly from person to person. The causes of drug/substance use seem to be mainly due to external/social influences, for example peer pressure and abuse/addiction—dependenceRead MoreDrugs And Psychoactive Drugs925 Words   |  4 PagesPsychoactive drugs are chemicals that affect the nervous system. When a psychoactive drug is taken it can cause changes in mood, emotions, feelings and thoughts. These drugs can also change how a person perceives things and can alter the consciousness of that person (Plotnik Kouyoumdijian, 2014). Psychoactive drugs can be illicit or licit, illegal or legal. Both licit and illicit psychoactive drugs can cause affect a person. Some examples of licit psychoactive drugs are coffee, alcohol, and tobacco

Tuesday, December 17, 2019

Cognitive Effects Of Parental Divorce On Children And...

Cognitive Effects of Parental Divorce on Children and Young Adults Catherine B Ricketts Southern Union State Community College Abstract Many countries have conducted research studies concerning how separation and divorce affects children and young adults in cognitive development. It is mutually agreed that over all, children and young adults are recommended to have both parents present while raising the younger generation. This reinforces certain rules and regulations to stay with the child. If children are not raised with the basic principle of â€Å"It takes two†, they will most likely develop relationship problems themselves, unable to commit to one person or another, thus leading to depressive tendencies thinking that no one understand or likes them. This research study will enlighten this shadowy area and further worldwide research on cognitive development through the ages. Participants will be paid $5 (USD) upon completion of a written questionnaire survey and/or $10 (USD) upon a face-to-face interview followed by a test like survey. Hopefully, some archival papers may provide some guidance as to how to format final questionnaires and present the final information. Cognitive Effects of Parental Divorce on Children and Young Adults Many worldwide research studies have been done on the cognitive effects that divorce and separation have on children and young adults. This paper’s ambition is to enlighten and investigate any benefits and harmful side effectsShow MoreRelatedHow Divorce Affects A Child s Development Essay888 Words   |  4 Pagestoday s society, divorce or remarriage rate has been growing rapidly. Divorces is a legal action between married people that is on longer together. Over the last twenty-five years, several studies has indicated that divorce process may affect family characteristics and most especially children s cognitive performance. Divorce changes children s lives through parental emotion and behavior. Divorce may also increase the risk of negative outcomes for younger and older children. Children from infant andRead MoreHow Divorce Affects A Child s Development Essay887 Words   |  4 Pagess society, divorce or remarriage rate has been growing rapidly. Divorces is a legal action between married people that is on longer together. Over the last twenty-five years, several studies has indicated that divorce process may affect family characteristics and most especially children s cognitive performance. Divorce changes children s lives through parental emotion and behavior. Divorce may also increase the risk of negative outcomes for younger and older children. Children from infantRead MoreThe Effects Of Divorce On Child Development1194 Words   |  5 PagesThe Effects of Divorce on Child Development I met the love of my life in my financial accounting class. He was charming, and intelligent, and he carried himself well. Early into our relationship I realized underneath this assuring exterior, was a broken, unstable man. He had issues with trust, and he always took many health risks. He explained to me how hard it was for him to attach himself to people because he figured they would leave anyways. Nothing is forever. he seemed to believe. On topRead MoreAttachment Theory Of Divorce756 Words   |  4 Pages2.8.2. Attachment Theory: Attachment theory in the Context of Divorce: To comprehend attachment between former spouses requires understanding some basic tenets of attachment theory, the concept of persistent attachments, and how these attachments influence the relational dynamics between former partners and their children. Attachment theory of divorce Brooke Feeney and Joan Monin describe how attachment bonds are just as vital to survival and fitness as are reproduction and nutrition. These bondsRead MoreSpeech1150 Words   |  5 Pagesspeak with you every 13 seconds of those five minutes a divorce will occur. At the end of today there will be a total of 6,646 divorces and in one week there will be a total of 46, 523 divorces (Portnoy, 2008). I am here today to be the voice of the children whose parents are divorced and transform the children’s lives but I cannot do this alone and I will need your help. Today we will be discussing the issues, obstacles, strengths of children whose parents got divorced, challenges, and concernsRead MoreExpository Essay on Parenting1582 Words   |  7 Pagessubstantially when compared with parenting 20 years ago. Degree of parental responsibility and pressure on parents as having increased while a decrease in levels of parental control has heightened. Enjoyment of the parental role is associated with the sense of fulfillment and achievement parents experience as a result of the healthy and thriving development of their children. Information on the range of disciplinary tactics used by parents and parental beliefs and attitudes to control strategies is essentialRead MoreAdolescence And Emerging Adults : Adolescence2029 Words   |  9 Pagesperiod of various biological, cognitive and socio-emotional changes. The storm and stress view of adolescence sees this developmental period as a turbulent time period with stress, conflict and mood swings. In-bet ween the transition from adolescence to adulthood, a period called emerging adulthood occurs between 18 to 25 years of age. During this period the emerging adult explores identity, opportunities and independence. This is a period of instability for the emerging adult in various fronts such asRead MoreMarriage Success and The Psychology Behind It1235 Words   |  5 PagesMarriage Success and the Psychology behind it What are the effects of 1) parental marriage status and 2) attitudes towards marriage, on marriage success? SPECIFIC AIMS By analyzing an individual’s parental marital status and through observing individuals in the course of adolescent dating and/or young adult marriage, one can measure the attitudes and expectations concerning marriage. Young adults who have either came from a home of divorced parents or an intact family will affect theRead MoreThe Impact Of Divorce On Children And Adolescents3582 Words   |  15 PagesImpact of Divorce on Children and Adolescents Yauheni Silitski Georgia Gwinnett College Stephan Desrochers Abstract In the following paper, the various consequential effects of divorce upon children and adolescents and their development will be examined. The main purpose of this review is to determine the effects of the effects of the growing epidemic of divorce, what is happening to our children when they confront the reality ofRead MoreExploring How Parental Divorce Before the Age of Six Affects The Child’s Attachment Relationships in Adulthood. 1757 Words   |  8 Pagesin divorce presently stands at fifty-percent in the United States. As a consequence many children will go through the divorce process as well. What is important to note is that many children go through divorce before the age of six and this is very significant to their development. Most importantly from infancy through the early years of life (preschool years), children are working on forming secure attachments. There have not been many studies done about the impact of divorce on children younger

Sunday, December 8, 2019

Integrated Fish Farming Business †Free Samples to Students

Question: Discuss about the Integrated Fish Farming Business. Answer: Introduction: Fish farming in an integrated content means the process by which fish production is done together with production of other substances like vegetables and worms important for their growth and development. Need to come up with this decision of integrated fish farming is to help fill in the gaps of large demands of products made using fish both at local and international markets. The rate of consumption of fish made products is increasing at a very high rate as its being discovered its relevant impact. To enable this production of fish in center of other production of vegetables and worms important for adequate fish food production good conditions are required. The level of soil nitrogen should be favorable as well as its biomass to enhance favorable conditions for raring of worms and also vegetable farming important for fish food. The sediment of the fish ponds should be right and conditioned in a way that they fit the required conditions of producing fish. Information on the means of feeding, quality of the food taken by the fish, quality of water in to which the pond is filled with as well as that of biomass of phytoplankton enhanced should be relevant. At what rate will the ponds be filled and drained off water? How will the soil nitrogenic level be evaluated? What type of worms are favorable to feeding fish that enhance more growth for more production? What is the probability of increasing per capital use or consumption of fish products to a higher rate? What is already known about integrated fish farming According to Joshi 2017, integration of fish farming is mostly successful on the concept that there is no waste of any resource as its useful and the word waste is only a misplaced term. He continues to state that, there has to be utilization of all available and relevant products to enhance fish farming in the context that all that are to be produced are important for fish food production. A better combination of the contents involved in production are also factors determining fish production success. A project proposal report on fish farming in an integrated context in Zambia discusses that, for successful production of fish farming in the most simplest manner is to enhance productivity of both water by ensuring that is adequately contented to enhance production and also improve on land production by improving its nitrogenic levels as well as its water levels of the soils for vegetable production. This is very important as it ensures adequate fish food production as well as increas es inter-fish breeding. Increased food production tonnes leads to increased vegetable production well as worms breeding to enhance adequate fish food production. According to a research proposal on fish farming from Nikimu, fish protein is important for manufacture of brain related treatments and thus they should be produced at a high rate. This is very important as it has enhanced healing of brain related malfunctions. References Joshi, B. (2017). Integrated fish farming Le, F. N., Jobling, M., Carter, C. (2010). Finfish Aquaculture Diversification: Species Selection for Diversification. Wallingford: CABI. Nash, C. (2010). The History of Aquaculture. New York, NY: John Wiley Sons.

Sunday, December 1, 2019

Ratan Tata and his Leadership qualities Essay Example

Ratan Tata and his Leadership qualities Essay Todays modern India in a way is very much indebted to JamsetJi Tata, known as The Father of Indian Industry. While, he himself couldnt completely fulfill the missions of starting Tata industries, he laid the foundation for success, only to be fulfilled by his great grandson, Ratan Tata who became the successor of Tata Group and gave a glorious expression to each of his dreams. Ratan Tata is the present Chairman of Tata Group, who consolidated and expanded the business from him and made Tata one of the most prestigious brands in Southeast Asia. His Vision led the Tata Group ecome one of Indias largest business conglomerates and in recent years has made significance presence at international level by various Acquisitions. The qualities that people admire about him are his sincerity and total devotion. He is a workaholic. One of his democratic qualities is the discussion in a small group, when all those present could open up and freely express their views on all subjects. This quality more defines his Democratic leadership style. Usually, when a person gets promoted to a higher position in the hierarchy, his attitude towards the bottom level and his workplace gets changed. He was a deputy chairman before the Board of Directors appointed him as the chairman. The chairmanship of TISCO (then known as Tata Iron and Steel Company, now Tata Steel Ltd. ) did not change him. He evoked support from his team and he still does. Ratan Tata is not the type of boss who is given to thumping the table. We will write a custom essay sample on Ratan Tata and his Leadership qualities specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Ratan Tata and his Leadership qualities specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Ratan Tata and his Leadership qualities specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer He softly mandates, and those to whom the message is addressed get the point very clearly. He thinks big and encourages others to do likewise. He does not discourage those who occasionally fail to deliver. When dealing with difference of opinions, he will convincingly present his point, but at the same ime, he will also carefully listen to the point of view of others and then come to an agreement. We are organized more like a telephony model system, which is not one of command-and-control, but one where multiple activities are happening. Ratan Tata. Along with a Democratic leadership, Ratan Tata works according to different theories of leadership. Today, he is one of the successful business leaders who have used mixtures of theories to run their businesses. According to Hershey-Blanchard Situational Leadership Model, Ratan Tatas leadership behaviour is of delegating type. He is involved in the discussion, but the process and responsibility is transferred to the individual companys M Ds. On the other hand, according to Blake and Moutons Managerial Grid Theory, Ratan Tata holds high readiness in both concern for people and concern for his production, which can be witnessed in Tata Group companies which are Tata Tetley Tea, Tata Motors, Tata Chemicals, etc. Moreover, he also fits in Transformational Leadership theory, where satisfies all those qualities that makes him a transformational leader. He is vision to make Tata as global company was done by introducing Tata Nano car worth 1. lakhs INR. ($2500 CND). Secondly, he maintains his Integrity by conducting his business fairly, with honesty and transparency. Everything he does must stand the test of public scrutiny. Furthermore, his strategic thinking (intellectual stimulation) of taking over JCR Oyoti Cera Rubber), Tetley (Tea Company), and Corus (Steel Company) is also evidence. companies, also shows that he does fit in the transformational leadership theory. Hence, Ratan Tata is a leading business leader who believes in doing things the right way and building whats good for long term.

Tuesday, November 26, 2019

Interview with a Vietnam War Veteran essays

Interview with a Vietnam War Veteran essays This interview was conducted though the internet on October 8 2002. Chuck Burns offered to share his Vietnam thoughts and experiences with us. In 1966 I dropped college and joined the Marines under threat of the draft. I wasnt sure what I was doing, but some of my buddies were going, so who was I to stay behind. Never thought of running - conservative family roots, my country, my family, my life. Run to what, run to where? I had no opinion. My country was fighting communism in a far off land. Better there than here. I knew nothing about a place called Nam. USA should have been involved with a different strategy, a better leadership, and greater support from the citizens. My training consisted of two months of orientation in a branch, (boot camp), two months of basic infantry training and 1 month of staging. I arrived at Da Nang, on a C-130 as a replacement grunt, and summarily I was assigned to a line outfit in Chu Lai. I found the country beautiful, rainy and green. In contrast the economy was inexistent at best. It was like shock treatment to what I knew. Muddy roads, trails, and villagers in pajamas. I remember when I was first taken to a battalion area. The truck passed through villages with women and kids standing on mud and waving a couple of feet away from us. My most vivid memories are those of combat and the images of combat from both sides. Most notably my brothers in arms. The chaos of the moment. Other than that, the personalities involved were varied and memorable. From the black brother from Chicago, to the hillbilly from Georgia. We all came together and knew each other. Very well. There were sailors, marines, soldiers and air men. Not to mention chopper pilots and jet pilots, medics and corpsmen. I was a Marine. Life was unbearable at first. A camping trip with no tent or warm coco. Enjoyment, was eating out of cans, sleeping and reading mail from home. No head, no clean water, no trails, an ...

Friday, November 22, 2019

Stone Tools Then and Now

Stone Tools Then and Now We all know the cartoon of the cave man bearing his stone axe. How crude life must have been, we may think, when there was no metal. But stone is a worthy servant. In fact, stone tools have been found that are more than 2 million years old. This means that stone technology is not something Homo sapiens invented- we inherited it from earlier hominid species. And stone tools are still around. I dont mean stone used for construction, but things you can hold in your hand and do stuff with. Stone Grinding Tools Start with grinding. One stone tool thats still in common kitchen use is the mortar and pestle, better than anything for turning things to a powder or paste. (Those are made of marble or agate.) And maybe you seek out stoneground flour for your baking needs. (Grindstones are made of quartzite and similar rocks.) Perhaps the highest use of stone today along these lines is in the tough, heavy granite rollers used for grinding and conching chocolate. And lets not forget chalk, the soft stone used for writing on blackboards or sidewalks. Edged Stone Tools But what makes me light up is edged stone tools. If you spend enough time in suitable country, one day youll pick up an ancient arrowhead. The utter coolness of the technology really comes home when you look at one of these stone tools close up, like some of the delicate points at The technique of making them is called knapping (with a silent K), and it involves striking stones with harder stones, or highly controlled pressure flaking with pieces of antler and similar materials. It takes years of practice, and you cut your hands a lot until you become an expert. The type of stone used is typically chert. Chert is a form of quartz with an exceedingly fine grain. Different types are called flint, agate, and chalcedony. A similar rock, obsidian, forms from high-silica lava and is the best knapping stone of all. These stone tools- points, blades, scrapers, axes and more- are often the only evidence we have from archaeological sites. They are cultural fossils, and like true fossils, they have been collected and classified for many years around the world. Modern geochemical techniques like neutron activation analysis, coupled with growing databases  of the sources of toolmaking stone, are allowing us to trace the movements of prehistoric peoples and the patterns of trade among them. Stone Tools Today Another thing that makes me light up is knowing that this technology is being revived and preserved by a bunch of fanatic knappers. Theyll show you how at a local knap-in, theyll sell you videotapes and books, and of course theyll put their passion on the web. The best knapping websites, I think, are Knappers Anonymous and, but if you want to follow the arrowhead trail to the scientific end of things, start with the lithics page from Kris Hirst, the About Archaeology Guide. The knapper/artist Errett Callahan has devoted his career to reproducing all the ancient tools, then moving beyond them. He and other practitioners have brought this technology into what he calls the Post-Neolithic period. His fantasy knives will make your jaws drop. PS: Obsidian scalpels are the sharpest in the world, and plastic surgeons rely on them more and more for operations where scarring must be minimized. Truly, the stone edge is here to stay.

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Which Housing Should I Get Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Which Housing Should I Get - Assignment Example The report gives an overview of the labor market and local housing conditions in Salt Lake County, which is my area of residence near my family home. Also, the housing analysis report includes the calculations of how much money I will earn after graduation, as well as the affordable homes for rent. There is a consideration of the mortgage interest rates in case I will buy a house. In addition, the paper discusses the pros and cons of the interested properties and their location, as well as, the assumptions made before coming to the final housing choice. The current status of the job market is still poor, having in mind that the American economy is recovering from the global financial crisis of 2008. The rate of youth unemployment remains high although it is unpredictable in the future. However, the labor and housing markets have recently started recovering and thus there is hope for employment of the youths (Utah Economic Council, 2014). Based on the current status of the jobs market, one can only get a short term employment contract earning you a living wage. It is sensible for a fresh graduate getting such a salary to rent a house after graduation, although some may borrow loans in the form of mortgages to buy houses, with the aid of their parents. The level of income usually affects the type of a house one lives and the standards of living, as well. The housing conditions are reportedly to have improved due to the on-going recovery of the economy from the Great Recession. However, there is a likelihood of the increase in housing prices in the coming few years and, for this reason, many people are opting for buying their homes (Utah Economic Council, 2014). Currently, in Utah, the mortgage default rates are high, and many people are going bankrupt. It is a hard decision to make for whoever is willing to get housing facilities from this county. From the facts of the housing markets, it is evident that housing is costly and also a unique consumer product

Tuesday, November 19, 2019

Analysis of Operation Situation and Competition of UK Insurance Essay

Analysis of Operation Situation and Competition of UK Insurance Industry - Essay Example These companies are Aviva Plc., Prudential Plc. and Royal and Sun Alliance Insurance Group. The first part of the paper includes PEST and Porter Five Forces analysis, while keeping in view the industry trends and environment. In addition to this, analysis of financial performance of the selected three insurance companies in UK has also been performed. This activity has been carried out with the help of ratio analysis; comparison of key financial indicators against closes competitors and industry standards. The next part of the paper consists of strategic analysis of the selected insurance businesses by utilizing Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threat (SWOT) model. The SWOT model is considered to be helpful in determining what are the external factors and future prospects that might have an influence on the direction of the business. Additionally, the model also identifies the role of internal factors of a business that might result in effecting the performance of the busines s on strategic and financial grounds. After presenting these analyses, a discussion based on the findings from analysis has been presented, which provides the ratings for selected companies on the basis of their financial performance and SWOT analysis. The insurance industry has been chosen for this project looking at the importance of this industry in terms of its contribution to the economy of UK. The insurance industry has played a vital a vital role in covering the customers from the risks of investment, health and education, etc. This industry have been satisfied the customers in terms of their requirements of general insurance as well as life insurance. Due to the demand of these products in the market, the industry has registered a strong trend of sales and revenue earnings. According to Global Business Browser (2012), the value of UK insurance market increased by 2.6% to $319.7 billion in 2011, which makes

Sunday, November 17, 2019

Herman Millar Inc. Essay Example for Free

Herman Millar Inc. Essay The office furniture manufacturing industry market in the United States is very competitive since many companies offering similar products. Companies compete primarily on price, product and service quality, differentiation, design, speed of delivery and customer service. Firms compete within each market segment and are pressured by growing competition from overseas manufacturers particularly from China and Vietnam. Six manufacturers-Steelcase, Herman Miller, Haworth, HNI, Kimball International and Knoll-account for approximately 60% of the U. S. office furniture market. The remainder of the market is captured by a large number of small and privately owned businesses that successfully supply the local communitys retail demand. The large number of existing companies definitely shaped the landscape of the Chinese market competition. Furniture manufacturing industry concentration has increased in last couple of years because many operators have gone out of business. Following the downturn of US economy, high unemployment rates, have created an intensely competitive environment for existing players; faced with low margins and volatile input costs, many underperforming operators were forced to exit the market. However, as the economy will recover, demand for new office furniture is expected to increase, expanding the number of companies over the five years to 2016. In conclusion, the intensity of rivalry is moderately high. Although current concentration of the industry is a low, the trend of the industry is to become more competitive in future. This would decrease the potential future profit of department store industry. Threat of new entrants The barrier to entry in this industry are medium and are steady. In the US office furniture industry, the capital required to enter the industry is considerably higher. New operators entering the industry face various challenges, including existing and well established distribution networks among operators and suppliers. To remain price competitive, the new operators need to establish strong supply relationships with manufacturers and wholesalers in order to secure good quality and low-priced stock. Since the concentration is expected to rise, it places an indirect pressure on new entrants that need to invest more in advertising to develop brand and market awareness. Marketing and promotional activity must exceed that of the existing players to build customer awareness and overcome retailer resistance. Furthermore, the productivity difference between the small-sized companies and the large-sized companies is very large. The combination of all this evidence indicates that the entrant barrier into the US office furniture industry is relatively high. Bargaining power of Supplier The intense internal competition force for resources among the large number of manufacturers pushed the bargaining power of suppliers to the most significant influence on domestic furniture industry. This refers primarily to suppliers of most important goods i. e. raw material and electric power, which are used in intermediary consumption during furniture manufacture. Purchases of raw materials are the largest expense for the Office Furniture Manufacturing industry, accounting for about 43. 7% of industry revenue. This proportion is typical for manufacturing industries, since operators require significant raw materials to produce final outputs. Input materials used for office furniture include hardwood, such as oak, cherry and maple wood; plywood and veneers; steel; glass; plastic; and glue. During the five years to 2011, the prices of these inputs have been volatile, making it difficult for manufacturers to anticipate future spending and reduce costs. In general, rising commodity prices have negatively affected the industry, increasing purchase costs for manufacturers. Bargaining power of buyers According to the research of IBIS World, department store sales depend heavily on the financial health of the consumer sector, including per capita disposable income. During periods of economic recession and decreasing income of people, consumers cut their spending by delaying purchases or substituting brands’ products with lower level products. This is heavily influenced by the unemployment rate and general economic growth. In the periods of strong economic activity people’s disposable income increase, and vice versa. Threat of substitutes Furniture has been used for thousands of years and built mostly of wood. There is little evidence indicating that wood furniture will be totally replaced by some other material in the foreseeable future. In the industry of furniture manufacture probability of substitutes is almost impossible. Current global trends have a favorable influence on increase in demand for furniture, due to ever faster obsolescence and shorter furniture lifetime, i. . due to frequent changes in design and manufacture technology. Possible threat of trend changes exists, i. e. furniture made from other materials than wood, that is, various metals, plastics and glass. However, despite the reduction of wood in furniture manufacture in the past years, wood is expected to stay one of the most important raw materials for furniture manufacture, because of its advantages when compared with oth er materials. Question: What are the driving forces and the key success factors in the industry? Answer: Having contacts within key markets: It is preferable that manufacturers have established links with a number of customers, including wholesalers, contractors and retail outlets, rather than having one or two that account for the majority of their business. Guaranteed supply of key inputs: Established links with key suppliers enable a steady flow of key inputs and price locks, which may provide cost savings for bulk purchases. Flexible production processes: Furniture items are often custom-made. Producers must be able to adjust products to suit individual requirements. Adapting to changing customer preferences: Goods produced should reflect current trends favored by consumers in order to remain competitive. Highly trained workforce: Staff is required to assemble office furniture efficiently and provide quality workmanship. Question: How have the company’s values shaped its strategy and approach to strategy execution? Provide illustrations of how these values are reflected in company policies. Answer: Question: What is Miller’s strategy? Which of the five generic competitive strategies most closely fit the competitive approach that Miller is taking? What type of competitive advantage is Miller trying to achieve? Answer: They focus on a growth strategy, through innovative products and production processes. Reinvention and renewal. They survived the Great Depression and multiple recessions, recovered from the dot-com bust and were able to continue expanding overseas. They adapted to save the company, by introducing new designs. In 1996, Herman Miller began an aggressive drive to reinvent its operations and established a fruitful relationship with the Toyota Supplier Support Center. Unique to the office furniture industry, the relationship enabled the company to adopt and implement world-class, lean manufacturing processes based on the Toyota Production System principles. Through the Herman Miller Production System (HMPS), the company dramatically reduced manufacturing square footage and inventories, cut lead times for standard product from 8 weeks Question: What is your overall appraisal of Miller’s financial performance? Answer:

Thursday, November 14, 2019

Voltaire and the Enlightenment Essay -- Essays Papers

Voltaire and the Enlightenment During the eighteenth century a group of French writers and critics known as the Philosophes favored change and reform. They believed in the power of the human mind, which was an idea that was inspired by the Scientific Revolution. The philosophes had faith in the power of rational criticism to challenge the tradition of the past. They also sought to apply the rules of reason and common sense to nearly all major institutions and social practices. The philosophes proposed a new kind of organized religion, a social religion which encouraged harmony and tolerance while strengthening the bonds of moral obligations within society. One of the major French philosophes during the eighteenth century was Voltaire. He was greatly inspired by the work of Isaac Newton during the Scientific Revolution, who believed there was a close relationship between his scientific theory and religion. Like Newton, Voltaire also theorized about the existence of God. One critic named Victor Hugo wrote, "'To name Voltaire is to characterize the entire Eighteenth Century. Italy had a Renaissance and Germany had Reformation, but France had Voltaire.'"1 Voltaire strongly believed that humans used their reason to make decisions and he also proposed a social religion and speculated about the existence of God which caused people to question their faith and reason. Voltaire, like many other Philosophes, believed in man provided that he was educated and used his reason. However, many people in Voltaire's time were illiterate, superstitious, unreasonable, and relied upon the guidance of the ruler. Voltaire believed in enlightened despotism, which was when the people obeyed the laws and made sure they were fairly enforced by all cla... ... the church and caused many people to question their faith and reason. Voltaire was one of the many philosophes who challenged people's faith and who was a part of the advancements in reason during the Enlightenment. - Frederick Artz, The Enlightenment in France (Oberlin: The Kent State University - Press, 1968), p. 66. - See Frederick Artz, p. 76. - See Frederick Artz, p. 79. - See Frederick Artz, p. 80. - Ronald Boss, "The Development of Social Religion: A Contradiction of French - Free Thought," Journal of the History of Ideas v. 34, no.4 (1973): p. 582. - See Ronald Boss, p. 583. - See Ronald Boss, p. 584. - See Ronald Boss, p. 585. - Rosemary Lauer, The Mind of Voltaire: A Study of his "Constructive Deism" (Westminster: Newman Press, 1961), p.90. - See Rosemary Lauer, p. 91. - See Rosemary Lauer, p. 92. - See Rosemary Lauer, p. 93.

Tuesday, November 12, 2019

How Exchange Rate Targeting Can Affect the Balance of Payment

1. Explain how exchange rate targeting by the central bank can affect the balance of payment position of a country (Hint: Consider the current and the capital accounts) Exchange rate targeting is whereby the exchange rate becomes the nominal anchor. The subject of the most favorable monetary regime for small open developing economies is still widely discussed. The advantages and disadvantages of different exchange rate regimes are far too many to be readily captured and used to come up with a specific regime that suits the needs of all. Real exchange rate is perhaps the most popular real target for developing economies.The main advantages of Exchange rate targeting are a)The nominal anchor of an exchange-rate target directly contributes to keeping inflation under control by tying the inflation rate for internationally traded goods to that found in the anchor country. b)The exchange rate can be directly observed i. e, with a fairly narrow band on a certain exchange rate, it is easy to determine whether the intermediate target is fulfilled c)An exchange-rate target provides an automatic rule for the conduct of monetary policy that helps mitigate the time-inconsistency problem. )An exchange-rate target has the advantage of simplicity and clarity, as it is easily understood by the public. The main advantages of Exchange rate targeting are a)Shocks that change interest rates in the anchor country lead to corresponding changes in interest rates in the target country. b)The targeting country is open to speculative attack on its currency whenever the anchor country pursues tight monetary policy. The close linkage of the exchange rate to the general price levels of the economies produce an economy wide importance of policy making since it affects the real income and wealth of those economies.One of the main objectives of the exchange rate based stabilizations is to improve the Balance of Payment (BOP) performance through international competitiveness. Devaluation or dep reciation of a country’s currency is aimed at gaining external competitiveness and BOP improvement in an economy. Exchange rate targeting is likely to impact on a nation’s BOP through various means which can be assessed through looking at the various approaches to BOP. In order for xchange rate targeting to be successful, it is vital that international financial support be availed in the form of an injection of foreign currency to increase the supply and perhaps match the demand for forex in the country. At the same time, the central bank should be building its foreign reserves. When the central bank has adequate reserves, then it can enter the forex market to influence the value of the dollar by buying or selling forex to affect liquidity conditions in the market. As investors gain confidence in the economy, foreign investment starts flowing into the country, increasing supply of forex.Also, as production increases due to a favourable market related exchange rate, exp orts will increase and so will be the inflow of forex. The main reason why the exchange rate continues to overshoot its real value is because, the central bank lacks the capacity to influence its value due to lack of adequate foreign reserves. Consider the elasticity approach to BOP. The elasticity approach emphasizes price changes as a determinant of a nation's balance of payments. The elasticity approach, therefore, considers the responsiveness of imports and exports to a change in the value of a nation’s currency.For example, if import demand is highly elastic, a depreciation of the domestic currency will cause a disproportional decline in the nation’s imports. The Marshall-Lerner condition, states that a currency devaluation will only lead to an improvement in the balance of payments if the sum of demand elasticity for imports and exports is greater than one An upwards shift in the value of a nation's currency relative to others will make a nation's exports less co mpetitive and make imports cheaper and so will tend to correct a current account surplus.The main advantage of manipulating exchange rates is that, if output is traded internationally, changes in exchange rates will have a powerful effect on Aggregate demand. According to Marshal Lerner condition, devaluation currency leads to improvement in the balance of payments if the sum of import and export elasticity’s is greater than one. A weak exchange rate leads to reduction in price of exports and increase the price of the imports. As such, quantity demanded will increase and quantity of imports demanded will decrease. This will increase the current account balance and hence a country remains competitive.

Saturday, November 9, 2019

Congestive Heart Failure

Congestive heart failure, also called CHF or heart failure, is a serious and complex disease in which the heart muscle has been damaged or has to work too hard because of heart disease and other conditions, such as obesity. Although the heart continues to beat, the damaged heart muscle is too weak to efficiently pump enough oxygen-rich blood to and from the body, resulting in potentially life-threatening congestion in the lungs and other tissues of the body. Congestive heart failure is a common complication of heart attack and other types of heart disease that damage the heart muscle. These diseases include hypertension, heart valve disorders, arrhythmias, and cardiomyopathy. Congestive heart failure can also be caused by anemia. In general, congestive heart failure affects both the left and right sides of the heart, but it can affect one side more than the other, depending on the location and severity of damage. In left-sided congestive heart failure, the left side of the heart is damaged and unable to effectively pump blood from the heart to the body. This results in blood backing up into the lungs and increasing blood pressure in the lungs. The increase in pressure causes a buildup of fluid in the lungs, which can lead to a life-threatening condition called acute pulmonary edema. In right-sided congestive heart failure, the right side of the heart is damaged and unable to effectively pump blood flowing from the body back to the heart. This results in a backup of blood and an increase in pressure in the veins that carry blood from the body to the heart. In turn, this leads to swelling (edema) of the lower extremities and sometimes of other areas of the body. Acute congestive heart failure, in which fluid builds up rapidly in the lungs and causes pulmonary edema, is an immediately life-threatening condition that can quickly lead to respiratory failure, cardiac arrest and death. Immediate emergency treatment best minimizes the risk of these and other serious†¦

Thursday, November 7, 2019

Brazil Sao Paulo essays

Brazil Sao Paulo essays Projections indicate a total population of 169 million in 2000. According to the 1996 count, the most populous region in the country is still the Southeast (63 million inhabitants), followed by the Northeast (45 million), the South (23.1 million), the North (11.1 million), and the Center-West (10.2 million). The most inhabited states are So Paulo, Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro, Bahia, Rio Grande do Sul, and Paran. These states all lie along the Atlantic coast.Sao Paulo state (1996 pop. 34,055,715), 95,713 sq mi (247,897 sq km), SE Brazil. It is Brazils most populous and economically important state. The capital is the city of So Paulo, (1996 pop. 9,816,776) So Paulo, which dominates the vast hinterland of one of Brazils wealthiest agricultural states, is Brazils commercial, financial, and industrial center. Through its Atlantic Ocean port of Santos The 1996 count showed that there were ninety-seven men for every 100 women and that the total number of women exceeded the number of men by 5 million. In the 1990-92 period, the economy deteriorated further, with a 1.3 percent annual decline in GDP and 4.1 percent decline in industrial output. Agriculture grew only 1.5 percent, and the services sector, only 0.4 percent annually. The overall unemployment rate increased from 3.4 percent in 1989 to 4.3 percent in 1990, 4.2 percent in 1991, and 5.8 percent in 1992. The labor absorption by the informal sector continued to be large and highly visible. As for the disparity in the wage scale, according to the 1990 household survey, in September of that year 10.8 percent of the employed work force, or 6.5 million persons, earned one-half of a minimum wage, a monthly average of US$299; 49.2 percent of the employed work force, or 29.8 million persons, received two minimum wages or less. At the other extreme, 7.8 percent of the employed work force received more than ten minimum wages, a monthly average of US$1,941; 3...

Tuesday, November 5, 2019

Examine the Causes of World War II

Examine the Causes of World War II Many of the seeds of World War II in Europe were sown by the Treaty of Versailles that ended World War I. In its final form, the treaty placed full blame for the war on Germany and Austria-Hungary, as well as exacted harsh financial reparations and led to territorial dismemberment. For the German people, who had believed that the armistice had been agreed to based on US President Woodrow Wilsons lenient Fourteen Points, the treaty caused resentment and a deep mistrust of their new government, the Weimar Republic. The need to pay war reparations, coupled with the instability of the government, contributed to massive hyperinflation which crippled the German economy. This situation was made worse by the onset of the Great Depression. In addition to the economic ramifications of the treaty, Germany was required to demilitarize the Rhineland and had severe limitations placed on the size of its military, including the abolishment of its air force. Territorially, Germany was stripped of its colonies and forfeited land for the formation of the country of Poland. To ensure that Germany would not expand, the treaty forbade the annexation of Austria, Poland, and Czechoslovakia. Rise of Fascism and the Nazi Party In 1922, Benito Mussolini and the Fascist Party rose to power in Italy. Believing in a strong central government and strict control of industry and the people, Fascism was a reaction to the perceived failure of free market economics and a deep fear of communism. Highly militaristic, Fascism also was driven by a sense of belligerent nationalism that encouraged conflict as a means of social improvement. By 1935, Mussolini was able to make himself the dictator of Italy and transformed the country into a police state. To the north in Germany, Fascism was embraced by the National Socialist German Workers Party, also known as the Nazis. Swiftly rising to power in the late 1920s, the Nazis and their charismatic leader, Adolf Hitler, followed the central tenets of Fascism while also advocating for the racial purity of the German people and additional German Lebensraum (living space). Playing on the economic distress in Weimar Germany and backed by their Brown Shirts militia, the Nazis became a political force. On January 30, 1933, Hitler was placed in a position to take power when he was appointed Reich Chancellor by President Paul von Hindenburg The Nazis Assume Power A month after Hitler assumed the Chancellorship, the Reichstag building burned. Blaming the fire on the Communist Party of Germany, Hitler used the incident as an excuse to ban those political parties that opposed Nazi policies. On March 23, 1933, the Nazis essentially took control of the government by passing the Enabling Acts. Meant to be an emergency measure, the acts gave the cabinet (and Hitler) the power to pass legislation without the approval of the Reichstag. Hitler next moved to consolidate his power and executed a purge of the party (The Night of the Long Knives) to eliminate those who could threaten his position. With his internal foes in check, Hitler began the persecution of those who were deemed racial enemies of the state. In September 1935, he passed the Nuremburg Laws which stripped Jews of their citizenship and forbade marriage or sexual relations between a Jew and an Aryan. Three years later the first pogrom began (Night of Broken Glass) in which over one hundred Jews were killed and 30,000 arrested and sent to concentration camps. Germany Remilitarizes On March 16, 1935, in clear violation of the Treaty of Versailles, Hitler ordered the remilitarization of Germany, including the reactivation of the Luftwaffe (air force). As the German army grew through conscription, the other European powers voiced minimal protest as they were more concerned with enforcing the economic aspects of the treaty. In a move that tacitly endorsed Hitlers violation of the treaty, Great Britain signed the Anglo-German Naval Agreement in 1935, which allowed Germany to build a fleet one third the size of the Royal Navy and ended British naval operations in the Baltic. Two years after beginning the expansion of the military, Hitler further violated the treaty by ordering the reoccupation of the Rhineland by the German Army. Proceeding cautiously, Hitler issued orders that the German troops should withdrawal if the French intervened. Not wanting to become involved in another major war, Britain and France avoided intervening and sought a resolution, with little success, through the League of Nations. After the war several German officers indicated that if the reoccupation of the Rhineland had been opposed, it would have meant the end of Hitlers regime. The Anschluss Emboldened by Great Britain and Frances reaction to the Rhineland, Hitler began to move forward with a plan to unite all German-speaking peoples under one Greater German regime. Again operating in violation of the Treaty of Versailles, Hitler made overtures regarding the annexation of Austria. While these were generally rebuffed by the government in Vienna, Hitler was able to orchestrate a coup by the Austrian Nazi Party on March 11, 1938, one day before a planned plebiscite on the issue. The next day, German troops crossed the border to enforce the Anschluss (annexation). A month later the Nazis held a plebiscite on the issue and received 99.73% of the vote. International reaction was again mild, with Great Britain and France issuing protests, but still showing that they were unwilling to take military action. The Munich Conference With Austria in his grasp, Hitler turned towards the ethnically German Sudetenland region of Czechoslovakia. Since its formation at the end of World War I, Czechoslovakia had been wary of possible German advances. To counter this, they had built an elaborate system of fortifications throughout the mountains of the Sudetenland to block any incursion and formed military alliances with France and the Soviet Union. In 1938, Hitler began supporting paramilitary activity and extremist violence in the Sudetenland. Following Czechoslovakias declaration of martial law in the region, Germany immediately demanded that the land be turned over to them. In response, Great Britain and France mobilized their armies for the first time since World War I. As Europe moved towards war, Mussolini suggested a conference to discuss the future of Czechoslovakia. This was agreed to and the meeting opened in September 1938, at Munich. In the negotiations, Great Britain and France, led by Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain and President Édouard Daladier respectively, followed a policy of appeasement and caved to Hitlers demands in order to avoid war. Signed on September 30, 1938, the Munich Agreement turned over the Sudetenland to Germany in exchange for Germanys promise to make no additional territorial demands. The Czechs, who had not been invited to conference, were forced to accept the agreement and were warned that if they failed to comply, they would be responsible for any war that resulted. By signing the agreement, the French defaulted on their treaty obligations to Czechoslovakia. Returning to England, Chamberlain claimed to have achieved peace for our time. The following March, German troops broke the agreement and seized the remainder of Czechoslovakia. Shortly thereafter, Germany entered into a military alliance with Mussolinis Italy. The Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact Angered by what he saw as the Western Powers colluding to give Czechoslovakia to Hitler, Josef Stalin worried that a similar thing could occur with the Soviet Union. Though wary, Stalin entered into talks with Britain and France regarding a potential alliance. In the summer of 1939, with the talks stalling, the Soviets began discussions with Nazi Germany regarding the creation of a  non-aggression pact. The final document, the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, was signed on August 23, and called for the sale of food and oil to Germany and mutual non-aggression. Also included in the pact were secret clauses dividing Eastern Europe into spheres of influence as well as plans for the partition of Poland. The Invasion of Poland Since  World War I, tensions had existed between Germany and Poland regarding the free city of Danzig and the Polish Corridor. The latter was a narrow strip of land reaching north to Danzig which provided Poland with access to the sea and separated the province of East Prussia from the rest of Germany. In an effort to resolve these issues and gain  Lebensraum  for the German people, Hitler began planning the invasion of Poland. Formed after World War I, Polands army was relatively weak and ill-equipped compared to Germany. To aid in its defense, Poland had formed military alliances with Great Britain and France. Massing their armies along the Polish border, the Germans staged a fake Polish attack on August 31, 1939. Using this as a pretext for war, German forces flooded across the border the next day. On September 3, Great Britain and France issued an ultimatum to Germany to end the fighting. When no reply was received, both nations declared war. In Poland, German troops executed a blitzkrieg (lightning war) assault combining armor and mechanized infantry. This was supported from above by the Luftwaffe, which had gained experience fighting with the fascist Nationalists during the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939). The Poles attempted to counterattack but were defeated at the Battle of Bzura (Sept. 9-19). As the fighting was ending at Bzura, the Soviets, acting on the terms of the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, invaded from the east. Under assault from two directions, the Polish defenses crumbled with only isolated cities and areas offering prolonged resistance. By October 1, the country had been completely overrun with some Polish units escaping to Hungary and Romania. During the campaign, Great Britain and France, who were both slow to mobilize, provided little support to their ally. With the conquest of Poland, the Germans implemented Operation Tannenberg which called for the arrest, detainment, and execution of 61,000 Polish activists, former officers, actors, and intelligentsia. By the end of September, special units known as  Einsatzgruppen  had killed over 20,000 Poles. In the east, the Soviets also committed numerous atrocities, including the murder of prisoners of war, as they advanced. The following year, the Soviets executed between 15,000-22,000 Polish POWs and citizens in the  Katyn Forest  on Stalins orders.

Sunday, November 3, 2019

What are environmental benefits of joining European Union Essay

What are environmental benefits of joining European Union - Essay Example Firstly, scholars have noted that the environmental standards that the European Union promotes can potentially save between 50,000 and 150,000 lives in countries that adopt EU standards; due to reduced levels of air pollution alone (Daly, 2012). With such a drastic reduction in death associated with air pollution, the society itself is not only better off and more healthy, they are able to defray a great many expenses that are associated with the long term healthcare of those individuals that suffer from this pollution. Estimates from scholars put the total cost savings that are associated with the above issue at tens of billions of pounds annually. Such a change can clearly be denoted with respect to the vastly positive shift in air purity that was represented within Romania’s air pollution index after European Union inclusion. Additionally, people in rural areas can be connected to municipal waste management systems; thereby reducing the pollution that takes place within the countryside as a result of illegal dumping. The power that this particular requirement has is oftentimes misunderstood or under-stated. However, by standardizing and centralizing the waste management of these nations, the entire ecosystem is preserved from the harm that many smaller and less stringent dumping sites would necessarily reflect (Kingston, 2010). The European Union also promotes a series of new requirements on nature protection; these will help to preserve the natural habitat of many creatures and a great many forest and swamp lands for future generations to enjoy (Bertram & Rehdanz, n.d.). Although such a consideration is oftentimes not the first concern of those individuals that wish to promote a further level of economic growth and independence, it is necessary for the preservation of the nation’s resources to consider the long term impacts that further destruction of

Thursday, October 31, 2019

Journals Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Journals - Essay Example Therefore, Sufi orders otherwise known as turuql could either be Sunni Shii, or a combination of both doctrines. However, it is interesting to know that most of the turuql originate from Islamic Prophet  Muhammad. Very interesting though, is the fact that sufis strongly believe in the ideologies of peace, pacifism, and tolerance. Nevertheless, although sufi devotion is appreciated by many tenets of muslims, Wahhabi  and Salafist  Muslims have a strong opposition to sufi devotion. Learning and understanding sufi devotion has indeed enlightened me on this unique way of Islamic worship. I certainly support this kind of devotion since it encourages the followers to purify their hearts as they do so. However, I find it very interesting that sufi devotion is somewhat similar to Christian worship especially when Christian go for fasting and prayer. However, what I fail to perceive is the reason why Wahhabi  and Salafist  Muslims have a strong opposition to sufi devotion considerin g the way sufi devotion seems good and interesting. I also think that sufi devotion was the ultimate God’s idea of having an intimate relationship with his people. Looking at Buddhism, Buddha’s appreciate the need for meditation as a way of connecting with divine power. Therefore, sufi devotion is a form of worship done in different ways in different religions but having different names. Modernity Undeniably, the term modernity has different dimensions of definition depending on what is being studied. However, modernity simply means the paradigm shift from feudalism to secularized world. Modernity is often seen through different lens such as capitalism, industrialization, technological advancement, religious ideologies among others. Modernity can also refer to as the element of enlightenment. Modernity within the Islamic context arguably began in Turkey where tremendous change of religious, cultural, scientific, as well as legal ideologies surfaced. Interestingly, the adoption of modernity was not a uniform phenomenon. Indeed, there existed different groups of people that did not embrace modernity. This explains why we still have conservatism in all religions. For instance, Islam is arguably divided into different significant groups. However, conservatism is still appreciated in many Islamic tenets. Nevertheless, those who appreciate modernism have very often maintained that the spirit of reason in the original message of Islam be incorporated in modern lifestyle. Although I am not old enough to have seen the change from the traditional aspect to modernity, I can still perceive the idea through the reading. I strongly feel that modernity has changed many aspects of life including religious thoughts and ideologies. However, I think God, in his mighty power, had foreseen the modern lifestyle and had therefore made religion compatible with modernity. Therefore, as we seek to embrace modernity in all other aspects, I believe that modernity should als o be embraced within the religious context. However, the arguments presented by those who do not support modernity in religion are also important in making sure that modernists do not go beyond what is expected of them. Reading about modernity and conservatism in the same reading is indeed a worthwhile endeavor. Muhammad Muhammad is believed to be the spiritual leader of the Islamic religion. Muhammad born in approximately 570 CE was a religious leader but more notably, he was also a religious and political leader as well.

Tuesday, October 29, 2019

Advanced management accounting Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Advanced management accounting - Essay Example They cannot control costs well without preparations the statements that reconcile expected revenue and expenditure with budgeted figures. In this regard, the paper aims at preparing a statement giving the budgeted, actual, and variances. The information above reveals that L10 has a favorable variance because the actual expenditure is less than the budgeted amount whereas L17 has an adverse variance sine the actual number exceeded the budgeted expenditure. The quantity put into books may not be the same as the one sold. It is due to favorable or unfavorable operating conditions. In obtaining the variance, the actual amount sold is subtracted from the standard number. The result is multiplied with the standard selling price. The information of Geeta plc allowed the calculation below in determining the sales volume variance. Labour cost variance has been given a definition by Drury (2008) as the difference between the actual labour cost incurred and the budgeted cost. It is made up of labour rate variance and labour efficiency variance. The employees in an organization may take more hours in completing tasks than what the budget allowed. Conversely, the conditions may allow the workers to spend less time in completing the activities assigned to them. Either way, the variance arises. It is calculated by finding the difference between the time allocated in the budget and the real time taken at standard wage rate (Lucey, 2002). In every organization, decision making process requires certain information. The crucial information involves cost analysis. The costs have different behavior, and it becomes necessary for management accountants to prepare cost reports allowing efficient management of costs. The statements categorize costs. In doing so, the managers are able to identify relevant and irrelevant costs. Lucey (2002) defines relevant cost as the one that can

Sunday, October 27, 2019

Importance Of Ecumenical Developments And Interfaith Dialogue Religion Essay

Importance Of Ecumenical Developments And Interfaith Dialogue Religion Essay The importance of ecumenical developments and interfaith dialogue in Australia is of significant meaning. Ecumenical development and interfaith dialogue impact religious multi-faith dialogue in Australia greatly. These dialogues have allowed other religions to communicate peacefully with one another and variants within Christianity to work together. The development of ecumenism in Australia is present through organizations such as the National Council of Churches Australia. In Australia the National Council of Churches is an ecumenical organization that brings together a number of Australias Christian Churches in dialogue and practical cooperation. The NCCA reflects ecumenical development as it promotes the importance of community coming together. This organisation joins with all Australians to convey their concern for the Australian communities. A very recent case of the NCCA showing their concern is for the people affected by the floods in Queensland. This organisation clearly demonstrates the importance of ecumenical development as it shows the unity of all Christian groups working towards peace. Another example promoting ecumenical development is the NSW Ecumenical Council. The council is made up of sixteen Christian churches through New South Whales and the Australian Capital Territory and follows three major beliefs. The NSW Ecumenical Council was established to be the instrument through which the churches seek to be faithful to their ecumenical calling and commitment. The council allows ecumenism to develop as it keeps the faith of Christ alive by following its major principles. The Ecumenical Council is a large part of the development as it encourages society to work together. The council helps organize and support a large range of gatherings and activities during the year to promote Christian unity and to help Christianity grow together as one. The Uniting Church is another example of ecumenical development as three churches came together and became one. It is a multicultural church, determined to treat people on an equal basis and to give a voice to the poor and the needy. The role of the church is to stand with the people, and to care for spiritual, social and educational growth. The Uniting Church is an example of ecumenical development as it helps all members of the multicultural community develop and help all with their problems. This is important as it helps the Christian community grow and teach people to treat others equally. All these organizations function to achieve the same outcome; to achieve the unity of Christianity. The councils and the church all work to serve the community. Without organizations practicing ecumenical development, Christianity will not be able to work together as one whole religious tradition. As well as ecumenical development in Australia, interfaith dialogue in Australia is of great importance. Interfaith dialogue is the interaction between different religions. Religious traditions all over Australia have come together and built relationships through interfaith dialogue organizations. This dialogue has brought together religions and helped one another communicate. Interfaith dialogue organisations seek unity and to promote harmonious living ways with all people regardless of their religion. The Australian National Dialogue of Christians, Muslims, and Jews are an interfaith dialogue organization. Its purpose is to provide opportunity for the national bodies of each faith to come together to build understanding and harmony in the Australian context. This organization is of great importance for interfaith dialogue in Australia as it teaches all people to live in harmony together. The Australian National Dialogue of Christians, Muslims, and Jews also aims to work together with the community and to teach others from different faiths and communities to work together in order to achieve their goals. Interfaith dialogue in Australia has been able to grow and become a very important part of Australian life through organisations. The Sikh Interfaith Council of Victoria is a non-profit organization, with an image to create greater awareness of Sikhs and Sikhism in the Australian community. The importance of this group in respect to interfaith dialogue also, is without it Sikhism would not have been able to build a network relationship with other religions. As a result of this organization interfaith in Australia between various religious traditions has been able to grow with one another. Living in harmony is not the only concern of the interfaith dialogue organisations. They are also concerned with the preservation and protection of the environment. Greenfaith Australia in Melbourne is an interfaith organisation that was established to bring together people from different faiths in responding to environmental issues. The actions of this group for interfaith dialogue are of great importance in Australia, as they are saving the world for our future generations to grow up in a healthy environment. Overall Ecumenical development and interfaith dialogue in Australia is of great importance. Without these, various religious traditions would not be able to communicate and work together in Australia. These issues have been taken seriously and organizations have been developed in order to make sure that all religions grow together in order to live in a better world and justice is received by all.

Friday, October 25, 2019

Herbal Medicine Essay -- essays research papers

Herbal medicine is the extraction of herbs or plants which have a medicinal value in treating illnesses and diseases (Brody 1). A herb is known as a plant that does not have a woody stem and usually dies back at the end of each growing season. It is also known as a "natural" drug because they are derived from nature. This is unlike pharmaceutical drugs, which are synthesized from chemicals. Herbal medicine dates back a very long time. More than 4,000 years ago, the Chinese emperor Qien Nong put a book together, or a herbal, of different medicinal plants (O’ Sullivan 2). It contained descriptions of more than 300 plants. Some of these plants are still used today. The Sumerians, at the same time recorded prescriptions on clay tablets. Also, the Egyptians recorded their information regarding medicine on rolls of papyrus. A very famous papyrus is the Ebers Papyrus, which includes specific information on how to use different plants (Brody 1). The Greeks and Romans learned about herbal medicine from these early civilizations. They also recorded them in books. We know of these works because they are translated into Arabic. Monks in Europe studied and grew plants for medicinal use. They translated the Arabic and that helped them with the plants. The first drugstores were in Baghdad (which is present day Iraq) in the 9th century (Smith 1). In the 13th century, major trade of herbs and spices occurred in London. Since there were no standards, bad quality herbs and wrong substitutes were often sold. Carolus Linneaus introduced the binomial system of plant nomenclature in 1753 (O’Sullivan 1). This helped identify plants scientifically, which helped to avoid mistakes between different plants. Many drugs commonly used today are of herbal origin. About one-quarter of the prescription drugs distributed by pharmacies in the United States contain at least one ingredient derived from plant material. Today, everyone from health care consumers to providers are learning about natural options to help with being healthy. â€Å"Herbalists, or individuals who use herbal remedies to alleviate pain, are on the rise in the United States† (Tremmel 1). In 1995, a survey was taken with about 600 physicians across the count... ...umerous kinds of herbal medicines available today. The best way of getting you money’s worth is by asking for the most popular one. This isn’t the only step, but also ask for any clinical trials, consult your doctor, and/or the company of the product. This way you can get the most effective product and be safe at the same time. I think that this new era of using natural herbal medicine is great and I support it greatly. Trying something new for a change is good. Even though some kinds of herbal medicine can produce harmful effects, many of the others are good. The only problem I see is that the Food and Drug Administration didn’t make it a requirement for the makers to submit studies on the drugs. Therefore, maybe sellers can make specific claims about preventing a disease even though it isn’t true. So if the FDA starts testing the medicines and helps separate the good from the bad then everything will be great. Thus, herbal medicine is medicine made from different parts of plants. They have become very popular in modern times. Some of these herbal medicines can be helpful while others can be harmful.

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Diversity from the Perspective of a Food Service Director Essay

An effective and successful â€Å"food service director† is somebody who has a heartfelt/genuine desire or yearning to establish, maintain, and continuously improve a hospitable and compassionate atmosphere for everyone regardless of what culture an individual belongs to or what beliefs he or she practices or what traditions he or she holds (Purdue University n. p. ). This means that a â€Å"food service director† should always be on the lookout on how to advance â€Å"cultural awareness, as well as, diversity† among its subordinates and everyone in the company he or she is working for, for that matter (Purdue University n. p. ). The subordinates of the â€Å"food service director† should be obliged to undergo â€Å"diversity training† wherein they will be taught certain languages or dialects that their clients speak (of course, this depends upon the location of their food service) (Purdue University n. p. ). For instance, in some places, there are mostly Filipinos and Spaniards who dine and so the â€Å"food service director† should make an effort to learn the language and even the culture of the aforementioned clients to make them feel that they are most welcome and so that they will also enjoy the service provided to them that will surely make them go back to that particular restaurant (Purdue University n. p. ). The same is true when it comes to the workforce of the â€Å"food service director†; he or she should be able to learn to respect other people’s cultures, practices, beliefs and be a perfect example for everybody he or she leads (UNESCO n. p. ). The â€Å"food service director† should be able to work with his or her subordinates effectively and this is a way to do it; upholding such will also improve the working relationship of the subordinates and thus they are motivated to become more productive as well (UNESCO n. p. ). Comparison of Culturally Diverse Groups For example, if we choose Filipinos as a culturally diverse group and compare its differences, as well as, similarities to the Americans, which in this case is the main-stream group, we will find out that for Filipinos, rice is a â€Å"major staple food† unlike Americans where they enjoy mashed potatoes a lot more than rice (BBC News n. p. ). Another difference that should be respected by the â€Å"food service director† is the use of eating utensils; he or she should be aware that Filipinos utilize spoon and fork typically instead of the spoon and knife that the Americans are used to (Kwintessential Cross Cultural Solutions n. p. ). In addition to the aforementioned, Filipinos usually arrive â€Å"fifteen to thirty minutes later† especially if it is a large party, unlike Americans who always pay particular attention to the time (Kwintessential Cross Cultural Solutions n. p. ). On the other hand, what these two cultures have in common is the fact that they dress properly when dining out (Kwintessential Cross Cultural Solutions n. p. ). Certain Accommodations/Adjustments that the Food Service Director has to Make There are several things that a Food Service Director can do and some of these are the following: First of all, it is important for the â€Å"food service director† to value certain differences (UNESCO n. p. ). This example portrayed by him or her will surely be instilled in his or her subordinates and will surely play a large role in the success of their service, and consequently that of their company as well (UNESCO n. p. ). Second, â€Å"food service director† has to learn the communication practices of their clients, for instance, there are certain cultures that appreciate being complimented on the clothes they wear and some think it is rude for strangers to comment on such personal issue; the â€Å"food service director† really has to develop tolerance for such (UNESCO n. p. ). The same is true with regards to suggesting on what food to order, in some cultures, they consider it rude if the â€Å"food service representatives† directly suggest; they appreciate it much better if they ask first before the â€Å"food service representatives† speak to them (UNESCO n. p. ). Third, the â€Å"food service director† has to be knowledgeable about certain languages that clients typically utilize to give them a sense of being exceedingly welcome (Purdue University n. p. ). Finally, the â€Å"food service director† has to uphold cultural awareness among his or her subordinates (Purdue University n. p. ). Conclusion It is important to be culturally aware so as to achieve more productivity; this is good for the food service business (Purdue University n. p. ). Furthermore, working relationships are upheld and maintained when the â€Å"food service director† and everyone around him is culturally-aware, this means that they value differences and that they respect each other (Purdue University n. p. ). Moreover, clients feel extra comfortable knowing that the places they dine at know, understand, and respect their culture, beliefs, and traditions as well (Purdue University n. p. ). This only shows that tolerance for culturally diversity is an extremely important issue nowadays and that properly/not properly addressing such issues will make or break a certain individual/career/business (Purdue University n. p. ). Works Cited BBC News. Rice Prices Hit Philippines Poor. 6 April 2008. n. a. 16 May 2008. http://news. bbc. co. uk/2/hi/business/7330168. stm Kwintessential Cross Cultural Solutions. Philippines: Language, Culture, Customs, and Etiquette. n. d. n. a. 16 May 2008. http://www. kwintessential. co. uk/resources/global-etiquette/philippines-country-profile. html Purdue University. Purdue Housing and Food Services Wins National Diversity Award. 13 November 2007. n. a. 16 May 2008. http://news. uns. purdue. edu/x/2007b/071113CoulsonDiversity. html UNESCO. Promoting Tolerance. 2007. n. a. 16 May 2008. http://portal. unesco. org/shs/en/ev. php-URL_ID=6551&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201. html

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Psy250 Biological and Humanistic Approaches to Personality

Biological and Humanistic Approaches to Personality The stages of human development are influenced by biological and humanistic theories. Maslow's hierarchy of needs stresses the need for and individual to discover their own personality and gain self-control in their personal life. Abraham Maslow had a theory that an individual will desire more in life once they have accomplished the basic needs in life. Humanistic features of personality focus on freedom and self-fulfillment. Unlike Maslow, Hans Eysenck and other theorist proclaimed that personality comes from a biological approach that an individual’s behavior is influenced by genetics.The following will consist of a description of how Maslow’s hierarchy of needs influence personality formations, biological factors that influence the formation of personality, the examination of the relationship of biological factors by Maslow’s theory of personality, along with basic aspects of humanistic theories incompatible with biological descriptions of personality. Maslow's hierarchy of needs is a theory of human motivation based on biological, safety, love and belongingness, esteem, and self- actualization.Personality is influenced by ideas that create a foundation of an individual's life relations and peak experiences. An individual's experiences assist an individual to transform and discover the inner self. Peak experiences are familiar to individuals whom have matured and discovered their full potential. Maslow believed that individuals strive for self-actualization once they have satisfied their more basic needs. Maslow also characterized self-actualization as being the most superior out of all hierarchy needs.Each of Maslow's hierarchy of needs define the patterns of human motivations for an individual to survive. Each stage also defines the personality growth in humans as well as in animals. The simplest level of needs must mature before the individual will be motivated to achieve higher need s. Biological needs are the simplest and main requirements for human survival such as water, food, air, and shelter. Maslow's hierarchy of human needs is categorized in two groups D-motives and B-motives (Friedman & Schustack,  2012, pg304). Biological needs are the needs of the body that uphold homeostasis.Food, water, and air are requirements for individuals to survive and produce a steady foundation for growth. Safety needs are crucial in protecting self for growth. Individuals who are smart, tough, fast, consistent, and organized have recognized a defense of security for survival. Challenges associated with the external urges influence defense mechanisms such as repression, denial, displacement, reaction formation, regression, sublimation, projection, and rationalization. Each defense mechanism allows people to protect their ego.Therefore allowing them to avoid posttraumatic stress and continue to strive toward self-actualization. Love and belongingness reflects off safety. Hu mans need to feel a sense of belongingness and love. If love comes from a social group, religious group, classmates, coworkers, family members, and friends, individuals need to love and be loved by others. Without the features of love an individual may become an object to social anxiety and depression. The need for belonging can overcome the biological and security needs, depending on the power of peer pressure from other individuals.Humans have a self-esteem influenced by self-respect. Esteem shows importance and appreciation, which influences the accomplishments of receiving a great education, career, friends, and respect. Individuals with low esteem require respect and attention from others but on the other hand high esteem requires self-respect along with self-confidence. The maximum developed need detects to be at peace with oneself. Self-actualized individuals are independent, choose privacy, love, freedom, and avoid social stress (Friedman & Schustack,  2012 pg305).Biologic al factors such as chromosomes, hormones, and the brain all have a main influence on human behavior. Biological factors that influence personality can involve genetics, disease, drugs, and medical disorders. Personality can be affected by many factors. Psychologist considers personality traits as sensors inside the brain, controlling a limit of behaviors and attitudes (Nettle, 2008). Sensor settings characterize where an individual stands on a measurement for each personality trait.The Big Five traits characterize the strength of certain type of psychological reaction, which depends on certain neurobiological mechanism in the brain (Nettle, 2008). Genetics considers being an influence to personality. Genetics are the primary involvement of personality. Genes affect how an individual's body and brain matures and functions. Individuals who may suffer from loss of genes on a specific chromosome contribute to disorders that genetic factors strongly influence personality (Friedman, Schus tack 2012 pg147). Personality can be affected by disease in which traits may onnect with how individuals handle situations and the emotional results that situations at hand create. It is believed that genetics influence the simplest characteristics. Hormones and brain structure influence behavior but neither has an effect on personality traits. Genes do not have control over personality traits but on the other hand genes influences behavior. The nervous system contributes to notification of the surrounding and dangers of the environment but also emphasizes the notion of importance of appropriate behavior.Biological theories have a stronger impact on personality than humanistic theories may have. Health issues such as mental illness, cancer, high blood pressure, and depression also can have an effect on an individual's personality. The medications that are prescribed to an individual to treat health issues may also have an impact on the personality. Illegal drugs and the abuse of alc ohol can contribute to the changes of personalities that have been established but triggered by chemicals within the drugs and alcohol.The nervous system and the growth of the brain both contributes to biological factors that are influenced by the environment an individual places themselves in and not only by genes. Humanistic approach attempts to stress an individual’s inner personality and spirit. Humanistic approach also stresses the viewpoint of being human. In addition, the humanistic approach also proclaims that individuals focus on the ability of other human beings having an effect on their personality.According to (Friedman & Schustack,  2012 pg291) attending small groups such as human potential movements, which started in the over fifty years ago, with other individuals whom have established all their hierarchy needs in life may influence an individual to become more creative and establish a level of self-fulfillment. In the humanistic approach, the theory is an ef fort that stresses the values and an individual's self-worth. Life matures while individuals plan their lives and take actions for their responsibility.Each individual must learn to have self-control and perform discipline to obtain a healthy lifestyle. Obtaining a healthy lifestyle will contribute to an individual discovering their inner potential. Humanistic believes that spiritual growth and awareness grounds personality in the full appreciation of the everyday world (Friedman & Schustack,  2012 pg303). Humanistic theorists focus on each individual’s personality, appreciation of naturalness, and the value of life (Friedman & Schustack,  2012 pg304). Humanistic theories follow the belief that every individual has their life and is in control of their own free will.Humanistic approach also influences an individual's feelings rather than thought process. Biological theories follow the belief that genetics influence the control of personality. The basic concepts of humanis tic and biological theories are different similarities. Healthy people must take responsibility for themselves, regardless of the actions and therefore, negative actions do not contradict the value of the person. Biological theories focus on thought or reason rather than feelings for self-worth and value. Biological theorists believe that genetics have an influence on an individual's personality.This secondary affect controls how a person develops into adulthood. Biological standpoints also teach that intelligence and genes determine a person’s personality. For example, twins who have similar traits or personalities share the same genetic traits. Genetics can also have an effect on how an individual copes with their personality. A child's childhood environment plays an extremely high influence on the outcome of an individual's personality as well. Therefore, biologic theorists believe that personality traits are genetic therefore, unavoidable.Some theorists believe that a com bination of psychotherapy and drug therapy could correct poor personality traits, leading to a productive life. Humanistic therapists believe that a productive life is an accomplishment of completing each stage of Maslow's hierarchy of needs life. Poor personality traits are learned not inherited but can be changed if willing. References Friedman, H. S. & Schustack, M. W. (2012). Personality: Classic theories and modern research (5th ed. ). Boston: Pearson/Allyn & Bacon. Nettle, D. (2008). Embrace your personality New Scientist, 197(2642), 36-39.

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

Learning Through Playful And Formal Methods Children And Young People Essay Essays

Learning Through Playful And Formal Methods Children And Young People Essay Essays Learning Through Playful And Formal Methods Children And Young People Essay Essay Learning Through Playful And Formal Methods Children And Young People Essay Essay Play has been characterized as an of import tool which fosters childrens larning accomplishments in several spheres such as linguistic communication and communicating, knowledge, and socialisation. This paper illustrates groundss that play enhances kids s problem-solving accomplishments and self-regulatory public presentation and metacognition by utilizing a job work outing undertaking ( comparing between finishing times of a jigsaw mystifier ) . During that task a self-regulatory theoretical account was used in order to enter the address. Thirty kids aged 40 to 55 months ( average age 3:9 ) involved in either playful or formal status. Results show that the cognitive public presentation which includes the job resolution, the self-regulation and metacognition is significantly improved through the playful status. Introduction Play is regarded as an of import activity which facilitates larning and development and enhances accomplishments in knowledge, socialisation, communicating, self-awareness, job resolution and sensory-motor map ( Stagnitti, 2004, p. 9 ) . Therefore, drama is seen from the early childhood plans as the basic attack of instruction for immature kids ( McInnes, Howard, Miles and Crowley, 2009 ) . However, many surveies have been conducted to give an recognized definition but the bulk of the efforts to specify drama cause restrictions to research which tend to exemplify the developmental potency of drama ( Thomas, Howard and Miles, 2006 ) . Owing to the fact that the nature of drama is non a predictable state of affairs, a hard phenomenon to interpret, it has provoked serious challenges to research workers. There are many research workers who province that the acquisition results are largely fostered by drama and others who possess a more conservative position about the relationship between drama and acquisition, peculiarly larning derives from many activities whereby drama has a more confined function ( Whitebread, Coltman, Jameson and Lander, 2009 ) . In order to exemplify a direct relation between drama and acquisition, research workers have focused on the impact of drama on job resolution activities. However, these surveies included many methodological failings because they did non gaining control and step the impact of the internal, affectional quality of drama which is gaiety ( McInnes et al. , 2009, p.32 ) . To understand gaiety Thomas et al. , ( 2009 ) have referred to practicians that have to larn kids s perceptual experiences of drama. The above impression is outstanding because this survey demonstrates two conditions in order to measure the impacts of drama on acquisition, the playful and the formal status. Furthermore, in line with Howard ( 2002 ) , who mentions that drama is adequately comprehendible from early old ages kids, this survey manipulated kids s perceptual experiences about drama in order to clear up the differences between playful and non playful patterns. Adults can be independent by pull offing their behaviour and emotions automatically without necessitating to believe, that is, they are able to self-regulate. During early childhood self-regulation occurs bit by bit and kids use egoistic address in order to work out a hard state of affairs. As kids grow up, their address switches to inner address and the soliloquies cut down. The self-regulatory linguistic communication kids use during early childhood is really of import for their development in assorted spheres. Interestingly, in playful activities kids use more self-regulatory linguistic communication than in non-playful state of affairss ( Howard and McInnes, 2013 ) . Indeed, in Whitebread et al. , ( 2009 ) survey were recorded many self-regulatory vocalizations by kids in playful state of affairss. The present survey provides grounds which suggests that drama contributes to larn by back uping the development of self-regulatory accomplishments and problem-solving accomplishments. Method Design This survey included a participants design and consisted of two experimental conditions. The independent variable was the class of status, that is, whether the kids practiced in playful or non-playful state of affairss. The dependent variables were the problem-solving mark betterment and the figure of self-regulatory vocalizations. A three-stage process was conducted, specifically the former-test, which included the clip taken for kids to finish the saber saw mystifier, the pattern five minute period which included the playful and non-playful conditions in which kids completed the activity. At this phase the self-regulatory vocalizations were recorded in each of the above conditions. Finally, the latter-test phase was elaborated two yearss after the drama or non play status and it measured the clip kids needed to finish the saber saw mystifier after the pattern in order to insulate acquisition and drama. The step of the efficaciousness was calculated by deducting the former-test clip from the latter-test times. Furthermore, the efficaciousness was calculated by mensurating the self-acting vocalizations. Participants The chance sample consisted of 30 kids ( 15 male childs and 15 misss ) from the same primary school category in South Wales who participated in the survey. The age of the kids was from 40 to 55 months ( average age 3:9 ) . Materials A digital voice recording equipment was used in order to enter the self-regulatory vocalizations during the pattern phase of the survey. At the same clip a camera was besides used to capture kids s motions and to verify the voice recording equipment s findings as good. For the job work outing activity saber saw mystifiers were chosen, peculiarly four mystifiers which did non picture gender based heroes and consisted of 24 big pieces. Each clip one mystifier was given to the kids in the former-test and the latter-test. Besides, the mystifiers did non picture existent life images but they portrayed abstract colored images. They were from the same fabrication company including the same hero in different state of affairss and each one was picturing a babys room rime. The specific mystifiers had neer been used in schools. Experimental conditions It was of importance to make contexts wherein kids would move playfully or non. Therefore, the cues that manipulated were emotional and environmental and included the voluntary temperament of a kid, the environment in which the pattern was held and the grownups presence. Hence, kids during the playful status were invited to take part and play on the floor for five proceedingss without the grownup s presence. On the other manus, kids during the non play status were told to take part at the tabular array for five proceedingss with the grownup s presence. Procedure Six schoolrooms were used for this survey. Three of them included a tabular array with two chairs and the others were empty. At the beginning of the undertaking each kid was shown the mystifier in the schoolrooms with the tabular array and the chairs and so was asked if he identified the rime. Subsequently on, the rime was narrated by the kid with the research worker s aid and the of import properties of the mystifier s image were described every bit good. Next, the saber saw mystifier was taken apart and the pieces were shuffled. The research worker recorded the clip it took the kid to finish the mystifier. After the completion the kids were allocated to either the playful or non-playful state of affairs and they were timed once more over the five minute pattern period. During the playful and non-playful state of affairs kids s self-regulatory vocalizations were recorded by the voice recording equipment and picture cameras which were placed in non-visible locations inside the school rooms. In peculiar, harmonizing to Livingston, ( 1997 ) this survey coded the self-regulatory vocalizations with a theoretical account which involved three chief facets of metacognition, the metacognitive cognition, the metacognitive ordinance and the emotional and motivational ordinance. Consequences Problem work outing betterment between the two groups For group A ( play status ) the average clip for finishing the mystifier between the former and the latter trial was 9.6 ( SD = 1.99 ) and for group B ( not-play status ) was 7.06 ( SD = 2.76 ) . The tonss from participants in the drama and non play pattern conditions were compared utilizing an unrelated t-test ( one tailed ) . Children in the playful pattern status performed better than kids in the non-playful pattern status ( p=0.0037 ) . The relationship between the age of kids and their tonss on the job work outing undertaking were investigated utilizing Pearsons correlativity. There was a positive relationship between the two steps ( r=0.90 ) , Figure 1. Older kids scored more extremely on the job work outing undertaking. Self-regulatory vocalizations The average figure of regulative vocalizations in playful state of affairs was 14.33 ( SD = 7.66 ) and during the non-playful status was 9.06 ( SD = 5.67 ) . From the 351 self-regulatory events 215 occurred on playful status ( 61.25 % ) and 136 during the non-playful status ( 38.74 % ) . Again, the tonss from participants in the drama and the formal pattern conditions were compared utilizing an unrelated t-test ( one tailed ) . Children in the playful pattern status performed better than kids in the non-playful state of affairs ( p=0.020 ) . Pearsons correlativity trial was used in order to look into the relationship between the age of kids and their tonss in the self-regulatory vocalizations. There was a negative relationship between the two steps ( r=-0.69 ) , Figure 2. Younger kids scored expressed more vocalizations. Discussion Findingss support the research inquiry that kids will be enhanced by playful patterns instead than formal conditions in the cognitive spheres of job resolution and self-regulatory and metacognition and that age plays an of import function in connexion with the above crucial spheres. As can be seen from the findings, there was a important difference between the two groups sing the job work outing undertaking. In other words, it can be inferred that drama positively influenced kids s cognitive public presentation. Furthermore, as kids grow up their cognitive accomplishments become more advanced, that is, they have an unconditioned sensitivity to get the hang more complex cognitive accomplishments when they are older. McInnes, Howard, Miles and Crowley ( 2009 ) stated in their survey that kids who practiced under playful instead than formal conditions illustrated significantly greater cognitive public presentation. Indeed, our survey supports the McInnes et al. , ( 2009 ) findings, because all kids performed better with jigsaw mystifiers during the playful state of affairss. Furthermore, kids expressed more self-regulatory vocalizations during the playful pattern status instead than the formal status, that is, harmonizing to these findings play provided more cognit ive challenges to kids. In line with the survey of Whitebread et al. , ( 2009 ) , kids express higher degrees of private address during drama and as reported by Vygotsky kids tend to speak to themselves whilst they are set abouting an activity, in making so, they learn to utilize linguistic communication to self-regulate their activities. However, the survey of Whitebread et Al. ( 2009 ) , has restrictions in comparing to our research, such us the deficiency of experimental control. For case, the above survey does non implement the experimental conditions of playful and non-playful conditions, hence at that place was non an expressed difference in kids s perceptual experiences whether a state of affairs was playful or non and whether grownups were right originating drama and arousing kids s self-regulatory vocalizations or non. Tellingly, the current survey dissociated whether there was a playful status or non by lucubrating emotional and environmental cues. As reported by Howard ( 2002 ) , kids possess the ability to separate drama or non play state of affairss based on their experience, hence in our survey kids were able to distinguish each status because they manipulated the cues given in both conditions. Consequences, showed that the age and the self-regulatory vocalizations are considered inextricably linked, due to the fact that the older kids showed a lower mark than the younger participants. In other words, it is obvious that as kids grow up their frequence of showing egoistic address reduces and becomes more interior address. Harmonizing to Gray and MacBlain ( 2012 ) , Piaget stated that kids from an early age project their ideas with the mediate tool of address, which he called egoist. However, as kids become more cognizant of societal outlooks egoistic address begins to melt and speech is internalized p. ( 46 ) . It is deserving adverting that the sample taken for this survey was kids from the same primary school category that is the bulk of kids were taught in a specific context, therefore the stimulation they received were limited. Furthermore, the school provided merely six schoolrooms during the procedure which caused defeat to the big figure of kids. The school should hold provided more schoolrooms for the survey needs. Last but non least future surveies should concentrate on the diverseness of the acquisition activities during the rating of the playful conditions in relation with larning results. Finally, by understanding the cues that kids use to show whether they want to move in a playful status or non, early old ages practicians will go more adept and will supply more acquisition chances associated with drama activities.